Table 2 Clubs that responded positively on the modified Sports Safety Audit Tool policy items
Policy itemsItem scoreBaselinePost-season follow-up12-month follow-up
Inter (%) (n = 32)Control (%) (n = 44)p ValueInter (%) (n = 27)Control (%) (n = 40)p ValueInter (%) (n = 27)Control (%) (n = 40)p Value
A documented sports safety/risk-management policy522290.45363250.002*8935<0.001*
A current documented sports safety plan216110.58741170.035*7412<0.001*
Current sports safety plan includes:
    Safety priorities119140.5463350.002*747<0.001*
    Individual responsibilities119110.36637100.008*597<0.001*
    Time frames1940.40230100.040*482<0.001*
    Review process119160.7453050.006*670<0.001*
A documented policy on:
    Emergency action/severe injury0.537410.76459370.08059400.122
    Head injuries0.516200.59233220.32652200.006*
    Preparticipation health screening0.525230.81822250.79452150.001*
    Blood rule†0.562750.24274700.71778400.002*
    Infectious diseases – other than “blood rule”?0.525110.11941250.17367500.177
    Sun protection0.525230.81844300.22648170.007*
    Qualifications of referees0.531230.40526100.08422250.794
    First-aiders/sports trainers at competition0.53160.07311170.47222120.292
    First-aiders/sports trainers at training0.5070.132450.801720.341
    Safety inspection of home ground facilities0.519230.67541270.2586317<0.001*
    Safety inspection of playing surfaces before competition0.544320.28744350.43670320.002*
    Safety inspection of playing surfaces before training0.516180.77033200.21937170.071
    Wearing/use of protective equipment during competition0.5100930.13296900.336100970.408
    Wearing/use of protective equipment during training0.587790.36389770.23396800.055
    Participation of players under the influence of alcohol0.541340.56041250.17389500.001*
    Drugs in sport0.525320.51841220.11044300.226
    Code of conduct/fair play policy for players0.597950.75496970.77696970.776
    Code of conduct for people attending competitions0.5100910.08096970.776100970.408
    Modified rules for juniors0.597930.47796950.80196850.138
    Child protection0.597890.188100950.23896920.520
    Pregnant players0.547290.12241300.36448320.197
    Adverse weather and safety0.566520.24459400.12278520.036*
    Other documented safety policy‡0.5§0.250.330.3970.460.320.2490.700.12<0.001*
  • Inter, intervention.

  • Explanation of the “blood rule”: a player who is bleeding or who has blood on himself or his clothes is required to leave the ground and receive medical attention. The player is not allowed to return to play until the bleeding has ceased and any blood has been completely removed from the player and their clothes.

  • *Significance set at p<0.05 with 95% CI. ‡Mean score and p value for independent samples t test (the χ2 test was used to generate the other p values). §Out of a maximum score of 1.5.

  • Data are positive responses.