Table 3 Effect of the two interventions on change in cognition (adjusted model)
Outcome (unit)Walking programme vs placebo activity programmeFA/B12/B6 vs placebo pills
Men (WP: n = 37 vs PAP: n = 48)Women (WP: n = 40 vs PAP: n = 27)Men (vit B: n = 44 vs placebo: n = 41)Women (vitamin B: n = 34 vs placebo: n = 33)
β (95% CI)¶p Valueβ (95% CI)¶p Valueβ (95% CI)¶p Valueβ (95% CI)¶p Value
AVLT 1–5 (words)†−1.4 (−4.1; 1.3)0.31−0.6 (−3.8 to 2.6)0.72−2.2 (−5.1 to 0.6)0.12−0.1 (−3.4 to 3.3)0.97
AVLT 6 (words)†−0.2 (−1.0 to 0.6)0.58−0.4 (−1.6 to 0.9)0.56−0.5 (−1.3 to 0.3)0.250.0 (−1.3 to 1.3)0.99
SCWT-A task 1 (s)‡0.6 (−0.6 to 1.8)0.29−1.3 (−2.9 to 0.3)0.100.0 (−1.3 to 1.2)0.98−0.9 (−2.6 to 0.7)0.27
SCWT-A task 2 (s)‡−1.0 (−2.2 to 0.2)0.100.6 (−0.9 to 2.1)0.460.1 (−1.1 to 1.4)0.84−0.7 (−2.2 to 0.9)0.39
SCWT-A task 3 (s)‡0.9 (−6.8 to 8.7)0.81−4.1 (−13.3 to 5.2)0.383.1 (−5.1 to 11.3)0.45−1.1 (−10.8 to 8.7)0.83
DSST (symbols)†0.9 (−1.2 to 3.0)0.400.8 (−1.4 to 3.1)0.47−1.4 (−3.7 to 0.8)0.202.9 (0.6 to 5.3)0.02*
VFT (words)†−1.7 (−4.4 to 1.0)0.21−1.4 (−4.8 to 2.0)0.420.8 (−2.0 to 3.6)0.58−1.0 (−4.5 to 2.6)0.59
  • AVLT, auditory verbal learning test; DSST, digit symbol substitution test; FA/B12/B6, folic acid, vitamins B-12 and B-6; PAP, placebo activity programme; s, seconds; SCWT-A, Stroop colour word test–abridged; VFT, verbal fluency test; WP, walking programme.

  • *Significant difference between FA/B12/B6 and placebo.

  • †Higher score indicates better performance; ‡Lower score indicates better performance.

  • ¶The βs (95% CI) indicate the difference in outcome between the walking programme and the placebo activity programme or between the vitamin pills and the placebo pills: the unit is the unit of the outcome measure.