Table 3 Standard Doppler echocardiographic quantitative analysis
VariableControls (n = 25)Hypertensive (n = 40)Athletes (n = 45)
M-mode echocardiography
    Septal wall thickness (mm)9.3 (1.1)12.9 (1.3)*12.1 (2.1)†
    Posterior wall thickness (mm)8.4 (2.1)12.8 (1.4)*11.4 (2.1)†
    LV end-diastolic diameter (mm)47.4 (4.7)47.2 (3.5)53.4 (4.7‡
    LV end-systolic diameter (mm)28.2 (2.9)26.8 (4.1)29.3 (2.9)
    LV end-diastolic volume/BSA (ml/m2)70.2 (2.4)68.2 (3.4)78.6 (3.6)‡
    Relative diastolic wall thickness0.43 (0.04)0.55 (0.06)§0.42 (0.04)
    LV ejection fraction (%)66.7 (3.7)63.1 (2.8)65.7 (4.7)
    LV mass index (g/m2.7)48.4 (5.9)68.2 (8.7)*63.4 (9.9)†
    LV ESSc (g/cm2)96.1 (10.2)118.6 (16.5)§103.1 (9.2)
    RV end-diastolic diameter (mm)21.2 (2.8)21.4 (2.2)22.2 (3.8)
    TAPSE (cm)2.0 (0.2 )1.9 (0.3)2.1 (0.3)
Standard Doppler analysis
    LV stroke volume (ml)71.4 (3.2)72.4 (4.3)81.1 (6.2)‡
    Mitral peak E velocity m/s)0.74 (0.17)0.65 (0.13)§0.79 (0.12)
    Mitral peak A velocity (m/s)0.53 (0.14)0.66 (0.14)§0.51 (0.12)
    Mitral peak E/A ratio1.5 (0.5)0.95 (0.51)§1.6 (0.5)
    Mitral E deceleration time (ms)171.3 (25.7)206.3 (17.7)§182.6 (36.3)
    Mitral isovolumic relaxation time (ms)82.3 (13.4)98.3 (16.6)§92.8 (20.4)
  • ESSc, circumferential end-systolic stress, LV, left ventricle; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.

  • *p<0.001: Patients with hypertension vs controls. †p<0.01: Athletes vs controls. ‡p<0.01: Athletes vs controls and patients with hypertension. §p<0.001: Patients with hypertension vs athletes and controls.