Table 4 Left atrial standard echo and two-dimensional strain baseline measurements in the overall study population
VariableControls (n = 25)Hypertensive (n = 40)Athletes (n = 45)
LA diameter (cm)3.6 (0.4)4.2 (0.4)†4.1 (0.5)*
LA maximum volume (cm2/m2)26.1 (3.1)30.3 (2.3)†29.3 (2.3)*
LA active emptying volume (cm2/m2)3.1 (2.8)6.2 (2.8)‡3.4 (2.5)
LA active emptying fraction (%)34.1 (7.3)44.1 (9.3)‡33.1 (6.2)
LA lateral wall strain (%)47.3 (15.6)37.2 (17.6)§51.3 (17.9)
LA septum strain (%)48.2 (15.7)39.2 (16.6)§55.2 (16.5)
LA roof strain (%)44.8 (13.2)38.8 (14.8)§53.8 (12.2)
  • LA, left atrium.

  • *p<0.01: Athletes vs controls. †p<0.01: Patients with hypertension vs controls. ‡p<0.001: Patients with hypertension vs controls and athletes. §p<0.0001: Patients with hypertension vs controls and athletes.