Table 1 Patient and hospital characteristics of sport-related hospitalisations for concussion, US Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2000–2004
TBIs (n)*Concussions (n)†Annual national estimate of concussions‡
n% (95% CI)
Total1568755742
E-code
    E886.024113713418.1 (15.3 to 21.4)
    E917.5108249949466.6 (62.7 to 70.2)
    E917.024511911415.3 (12.8 to 18.2)
Sex§
    Boys127862161183.7 (81.0 to 86.2)
    Girls27012111916.3 (13.8 to 19.0)
Age group, years
    5–921166668.9 (7.1 to 11.1)
    10–1464831130340.8 (37.1 to 44.7)
    15–1870937837350.3 (46.3 to 54.2)
Admission source
    Emergency room123462962283.8 (80.2 to 86.9)
    Transfer ¶12730283.8 (2.2 to 6.2)
    Other207969212.5 (9.8 to 15.7)
Disposition of patient
    Routine152774573398.7 (97.4 to 99.3)
    Other41DS**DS1.3 (0.7 to 2.6)
Insurance type
    Medicare and Medicaid194939012.2 (9.9 to 14.8)
    Private including HMO124459858979.3 (75.9 to 82.3)
    Uninsured7037374.9 (3.5 to 6.9)
    Other6027273.6 (2.5 to 5.3)
Hospital location§
    Rural145949512.9 (10.0 to 16.4)
    Urban142166064687.1 (83.6 to 90.0)
Hospital bed size§
    Small23910810113.7 (9.0 to 20.3)
    Medium36818618024.3 (19.4 to 30.1)
    Large95946046062.0 (55.1 to 68.5)
Teaching status of hospital§
    Non-teaching52931731141.9 (35.6 to 48.4)
    Teaching103743743158.1 (51.6 to 64.4)
Hospital region
    Northeast42024825033.6 (26.5 to 41.6)
    Midwest34414414719.8 (15.6 to 24.7)
    South43618717423.4 (18.5 to 29.0)
    West36817617223.2 (18.4 to 28.8)
  • CI, confidence interval, TBI, traumatic brain injury.

  • *TBI was defined based on a primary diagnosis of TBI (ICD-9-CM codes; see Methods) and included all the cases between 2000 and 2004. †Concussion was defined based on primary diagnosis of seven ICD-9-CM codes (see Methods) and included cases between 2000 and 2004. ‡Annual estimates weighted to discharges from all community, non-rehabilitation hospitals in the USA. §Sums <1568 are due to missing values. ¶Transfer from a hospital or healthcare facility. **Discharge information suppressed because cell count was ⩽10 (The Nationwide Inpatient Sample data user agreement precludes us from publishing cell counts ⩽10).