Table 6

Child labour: classifications, constituents and examples in sport

Non-relational maltreatmentClassificationsConstituentsExamples in sport
Child labourBonded child labour
  • Forcing a child to work against debt taken by themself or their family members

  • Trafficking of child athletes to work against debt taken by their family

Non-bonded child labour
  • Child is not forced to work to pay of debt but is rewarded financially of otherwise for working long hours, in hazardous conditions or in an environment in which they are exposed to lasting harm

  • Forcing/encouraging/permitting a child athlete to train for long hours (with “long hours” being defined by respective labour laws)

  • The financial reward of a child athlete for training or competing in hazardous conditions or in an environment with potential for lasting harm (eg, lasting harm on growth or maturation resulting from rewarded sport participation as a child in gymnastics or competitive weightlifting)

  • In order for the described behaviours to be defined as non-relational maltreatment, they must occur outside a critical relationship.