Table 8

Bullying: classifications, constituents and examples in sport

Non-relational maltreatmentClassificationsConstituentsExamples in sport
BullyingPhysical bullying
  • Theft

  • Theft of a team-mates sporting equipment

  • Hitting, kicking, punching, shoving, slapping, biting

  • Hitting, kicking, punching, shoving, slapping or biting an athlete

  • Preventing a person from going somewhere

  • Exclusion of an athlete from the locker room

Emotional bullying
  • Teasing, spreading rumours, threatening comments, name-calling, humiliation, ridicule

  • Teasing, spreading rumours, threatening comments, name-calling, humiliation or ridicule of an athlete

Social bullying
  • Isolation from social activities or non-acceptance in a peer group

  • Intentional exclusion of an athlete from postcompetition celebrations

  • Hazing or initiation rituals

  • Forcing a teammate to engage in an initiation activity (eg, act as a personal servant, drink excessively, perform dangerous or criminal activities, simulation of sexual acts)

  • In order for the described behaviours to be defined as non-relational maltreatment, they must occur outside a critical relationship.