Table 2 Kinetic and kinematic variables that were included in the analyses
SymbolVariableDefinition
HBFHorizontal breaking forceThe negative peak of the anterior–posterior ground reaction force
HPFHorizontal propulsive forceThe positive peak of the anterior–posterior ground reaction force
VIFVertical impact force peakImpact peak of the vertical ground reaction force
VLRVertical loading rateMaximum loading rate of vertical impact force peak
VPFVertical propulsive forceSecond peak of the vertical impact force
HicHip angle at heel strikeHip flexion angle at heel strike
HtoHip angle at toe-offHip extension angle at toe-off
HROMHip range of motionRange of motion of hip flexion from heel strike to toe-off
KicKnee angle at initial supporting surface contactKnee flexion angle at heel strike
KstKnee angle in midstanceMaximum knee flexion angle in stance phase
KROMRange of motion of knee flexionRange of motion of knee flexion from heel strike to midstance
AicAnkle angle at heel strikeAnkle dorsiflexion angle at heel strike
AstAnkle angle in midstanceMaximum ankle dorsiflexion angle in stance phase
  • Data are presented as mean (SD).