Table 4 Patho-anatomical approach: lateral to the groin triangle (diagnoses appear in order of frequency in an athletic population)
Define and alignPathologyListen and localisePalpate and re-createAlleviate and investigate
Lateral to triangleImpingement/labral pathology, femoro-acetabular jointMechanical signs, clicking in joint and/or catchingImpingement test44Magnetic resonance imaging, arthrogram45
Osteoarthritis/chondral damage, femoro-acetabular jointHistory of traumatic/congenital insult. Older age groupLimited range of movement,46 pain on weight bearingPlain film x ray, magnetic resonance imaging33
Persistent lateral hip pain worse on lying on affected sidePain on transition between lying/standing47Ultrasound.48 Relief of pain by ultrasound-guided local anaesthetic injection
Iliotibial band friction syndromeExternal “snapping” and/or lateral knee painRe-create snapping49Ultrasound48
Ober’s test32
Stress fracture neck of femurHeavy training load, biomechanical/gait abnormalityHop test,50 fulcrum test51Plain film x ray, Magnetic resonance imaging33
Nerve entrapment; lateral cutaneous femoral nerve/meralgia paraestheticaExercise induced, obesity52Reproduction of symptoms on pressure inferior to anterior superior iliac spine52Nerve conduction studies7