Table 5 Patho-anatomical approach: within the groin triangle (diagnoses appear in order of frequency in an athletic population)
Define and alignPathologyListen and localisePalpate and re-createAlleviate and investigate
Within the triangleIliopsoas syndromePain above and below inguinal ligament—associated snapping at hip jointThomas test, modified32Ultrasound scan dynamic view of snapping48 with or without injection53
Magnetic resonance imaging
Rectus femoris tendinopathy/apophysitisDoes knee movement affect pain?Rectus femoris contracture test54Plain x ray, ultrasound scan48
Magnetic resonance imaging
Femoral herniaPainful lump inferomedial to pubic tubercleMinimal relationship to exerciseUltrasound scan17
Nerve entrapmentAltered skin sensationDysaesthesia/hyperaesthesia over area of skin supplied by nerve in question8Relief of pain by local anaesthetic infiltration27
Genitofemoral nerve (femoral branch)
Medial femoral cutaneous nerveNerve conduction studies7