Table 1 Synopsis of growth factors contained in platelet-rich plasma35
Growth factorSourceFunction
Transforming growth factor-beta, TGF-βPlatelets, extracellular matrix of bone, cartilage matrix, activated TH1 cells and natural killer cells, macrophages/monocytes and neutrophilsStimulates undifferentiated mesenchymal cell proliferation; regulates endothelial, fibroblastic and osteoblastic mitogenesis; regulates collagen synthesis and collagenase secretion; regulates mitogenic effects of other growth factors; stimulates endothelial chemotaxis and angiogenesis; inhibits macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation
Basic fibroblast growth factor, bFGFPlatelets, macrophages, mesenchymal cells, chondrocytes, osteoblastsPromotes growth and differentiation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts; mitogenetic for mesenchymal cells, chondrocytes and osteoblasts
Platelet-derived growth factor, PDGFa-bPlatelets, osteoblasts, endothelial cells, macrophages, monocytes, smooth muscle cellsMitogenetic for mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts; stimulates chemotaxis and mitogenesis in fibroblast/glial/smooth muscle cells; regulates collagenase secretion and collagen synthesis; stimulates macrophage and neutrophil chemotaxis
Epidermal growth factor, EGFPlatelets, macrophages, monocytesStimulates endothelial chemotaxis/angiogenesis; regulates collagenase secretion; stimulates epithelial/mesenchymal mitogenesis
Vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGFPlatelets, endothelial cellsIncreases angiogenesis and vessel permeability; stimulates mitogenesis for endothelial cells
Connective tissue growth factor, CTGFPlatelets through endocytosis from extracellular environment in bone marrowPromotes angiogenesis, cartilage regeneration, fibrosis and platelet adhesion