Table 3 Characteristics and consequences of acute injuries during the 2006 FIFA World Cup and injuries and complaints reported retrospectively during the survey carried out 3 months earlier
RefereeType of injury during 2006 World CupMatch or training injuryType and frequency of treatmentDays of reduced trainingInjuries reported retrospectively in March/April 2006Complaints reported retrospectively in March/April 2006
MR1Heel open woundMTaping (8)6NoneNone
MR2Low back muscle strainMPhysiotherapy (8)Quadriceps (lm)
Massage (6)5NoneLow back (lm, 12, ca)
Electrotherapy (4)Adductors (lm, 12, ca)
MR3Elbow contusionMPhysiotherapy (4)0Calf strain (ca)Head, neck (lm, 12, ca)
Taping (4)Hamstring strain (ca)Calf (lm, 12, ca)
Electrotherapy (4)Hamstring (lm, 12, ca)
Low back (lm, 12, ca)
MR4Rib contusionTTaping (5)2NoneNone
MR5Ankle ligament sprainTPhysiotherapy (10)7NoneNone
Taping (10)
Electrotherapy (5)
MR6Hamstring muscle strainTPhysiotherapy (7)
Massage (8)5Ankle sprain (12)Ankle (12)
Electrotherapy (6)
MR7Heel contusion, plantar fasciaTMassage (6)4Meniscus lesion (ca), Achilles rupture (ca)Knee (ca)
Electrotherapy (5)Achilles (ca)
AR1Rectus femoris muscle strainMPhysiotherapy (10)
Massage (8)6Ankle sprain (prior to 2006 FIFA World Cup)Low back (12, ca)
Electrotherapy (7)Adductor strain (ca)Adductors (12, ca)
AR2Hamstring muscle strainMPhysiotherapy (15)Calf strain (12)Calf (12, ca)
Massage (12)10Hamstring strain (ca)Hamstring (12, ca)
Electrotherapy (10)
AR3Knee ligament sprain (MCL)MPhysiotherapy (8)4Meniscus lesion (ca)Head, neck (ca)
Electrotherapy (6)
AR4Hamstring muscle strainTPhysiotherapy (5)3NoneNone
Massage (6)
AR5Calf muscle strainTPhysiotherapy (6)Calf (lm, 12, ca)
Massage (5)3NoneHamstring (12, ca)
Electrotherapy (5)
AR6Ankle sprainTPhysiotherapy (5)5Calf strain (12)Ankle (ca)
Taping (5)Hamstring strain (ca)
AR7Thoracic muscle strainTPhysiotherapy (5)1Ankle sprain (ca)Achilles tendon (12, ca)
Electrotherapy (4)Ankle (12, ca)
  • AR, assistant referee; ca, career; lm, last match; M, match; MR, match referee; T, training; 12, last 12 months.