Table 3

Number (n) and proportions (%) of injury and illness types, locations, affected systems, symptoms and causes separated for bob (bob, skeleton, luge), curling, ice hockey, alpine and snowboarding (alpine skiing, ski and snowboard cross, freestyle aerials and moguls, snowboard half pipe and slalom) and Nordic Skiing (biathlon, cross-country, ski jumping, Nordic combined)

Bob n=314 (%)Curling n=100 (%)Ice hockey n=444 (%)Skating n=432 (%)Alpine and snowboarding n=665 (%)Nordic skiing n=615 (%)All n=2567 (%)
Injuries36 (11.5)4 (4.0)82 (18.5)47 (10.9)102 (15.3)16 (2.6)287 (11.2)
Injury location*
 Face (including eye, ear, nose)111113 (4.6)
 Head6521730 (10.5)
 Neck/cervical spine6234116 (5.6)
 Thoracic spine/upper back522110 (3.5)
 Sternum/ribs11215 (1.8)
 Lumbar spine/lower back21335216 (5.6)
 Abdomen1315 (1.8)
 Pelvis/sacrum/buttock6511 (3.9)
 Shoulder/clavicular1227315 (5.3)
 Upper arm123 (1.1)
 Elbow12519 (3.2)
 Forearm33 (1.1)
 Wrist182314 (4.9)
 Hand1449 (3.2)
 Finger1528 (2.8)
 Hip3133111 (3.9)
 Groin33 (1.1)
 Thigh4186120 (7.0)
 Knee17524239 (13.7)
 Lower leg656118 (6.3)
 Achilles tendon213 (1.1)
 Ankle1734116 (5.6)
 Foot/toe4138 (2.8)
Injury type*
 Concussion5311120 (7.0)
 Fracture (trauma, stress, other bone injuries)5211119 (6.6)
 Sprain (dislocation, subluxation, ligamentous rupture)313428351 (17.7)
 Strain (muscle rupture, tear, tendon rupture)1011164436 (12.6)
 Meniscus, cartilage11114 (1.4)
 Contusion, haematoma, bruise1129928380 (27.8)
 Tendinosis, tendinopathy11156216 (5.6)
 Arthritis, synovitis, bursitis1113 (1.1)
 Impingement1113 (1.1)
 Laceration, abrasion, skin lesion2129225 (8.8)
 Dental injury, broken tooth213 (1.1)
 Muscle cramps, spasm2112118 (2.8)
 Other (incl. nerve, spinal cord, fasciitis)11344114 (4.9)
Injury cause
 Overuse (gradual onset)22284119 (7.7)
 Overuse (sudden onset)11124312 (4.8)
 Non-contact trauma56934357 (23.0)
 Recurrence of previous injury33410 (4.0)
 Contact with another athlete1295136 (14.5)
 Contact with moving object32225 (10.1)
 Contact with stagnant object1711814454 (21.8)
 Violation of rules22 (0.8)
 Field or play conditions9110 (4.0)
 Weather conditions33 (1.2)
 Equipment failure1113 (1.2)
 Other4110217 (6.9)
Illnesses19 (6.1)10 (10.0)25 (5.6)50 (11.6)30 (4.5)45 (7.6)181 (7.1)
Illness affected system§
 Gastrointestinal312651036 (20.0)
 Respiratory13812321533113 (62.8)
 Allergic, immunological314 (2.2)
 Metabolic, endocrinological1326 (3.3)
 Dermatologic21148 (4.4)
 Other (including urogenital, gynaecological, cardiovascular, neurological, psychiatric, musculoskeletal, dental)1153212 (6.7)
Illness symptom§
 Fever1421816 (8.9)
 Pain71115131350 (27.9)
 Diarrhoea, vomiting11912317 (9.5)
 Dyspnoea, cough424951338 (21.2)
 Other (including dehydration, anaphylaxis, lethargy, dizziness)667229758 (32.4)
Illness cause
 Infection13716271829111 (63.8)
 Environmental11271517 (9.8)
 Exercise-induced1247 (4.0)
 Other (including pre-existing, drug)426128739 (22.4)
  • Information is missing for

  • * 2 injuries,

  • 39 injuries,

  • 4 illnesses,

  • § 6 illnesses and

  • 11 illnesses.