Table 3 Summary of prospective cohort studies monitoring recovery of post-concussion cognitive impairment
ReferenceSettingSample sizeOutcome measureTime to recovery
Bleiberg et al 200423Boxing programme—US Military academy64 concussions, 18 controlsComputerised test battery (ANAM)Cognitive recovery 3–7 days post injury
Echemendia et al 20017Collegiate athletes29 concussions, 20 controlsPaper-and-pencil test batteryNo significant differences to baseline within 7 days post injury
Hinton-Bayre et al 199927Elite Australian Rugby league20 concussionsPaper-and-pencil test battery60% recovered by 1–2 weeks post injury
Iverson et al 200610High school & collegiate concussion programme30 concussionsComputerised test battery (ImPACT)63% recovered by 10 days post injury
McCrae et al 200312Collegiate American football94 concussions, 56 controlsPaper-and-pencil test batteryAll athletes returned to baseline levels by 3–5 days post injury
Pellman et al 200413Professional American football787 concussionsPaper-and-pencil test batteryAll athletes returned to baseline levels within 5 days of injury
Sim et al 200818High school concussion programme14 concussions, 14 controlsComputerised test battery (ANAM)Cognitive recovery 7–10 days post injury
  • ANAM, automated neuropsychological assessment metrics.