Table 1 Study characteristics
StudyYear of publicationStudy designReliability (yes/no)Participants (control/concussed/baseline)Sports
Maddocks et al801995ProspectiveNo-/28/81ARFB
Macciocchi et al321996ProspectiveNo-/183/2300AFB,O
Lovell et al131998ReviewNoNAAFB
Cameron et al571999ReviewNoNANA
Collins et al441999ProspectiveNo10/16/393AFB
Maroon et al122000ReviewNoNANA
McCrory et al342000Prospective cohortNo-/23/303ARFB
Erlanger et al242001ProspectiveNo-/26/834AFB, So, W, FH, IH, BKB, KB,BD
Macciocchi et al812001Pretest—post-testNo-/24/2300AFB
Collins et al452002ProspectiveNo-/88/-AFB, So, BB, BKB, IH, L, C, W, V
Johnson et al422002ProspectiveNo9/9/84R,IH
Collins et al822003Prospective cohortNo-/109/-AFB, BKB, So, H, L, SB, T, V,W
Collins et al832003Case controlNo-/78/139AFB, H, So, BKB, BB, L
Erlanger et al232003ProspectiveNo414/-/- & -/26/823AFB, So, W, FH, IH, BKB, KB, BD
Erlanger et al582003ProspectiveNo-/47/1603AFB, So, W, H, BKB, IH, O
Field et al842003ProspectiveNo38/54/554AFB, So
Guskeiwicz et al32003Prospective cohortNo-/184/2905AFB
Iverson et al852003Prospective cohortYes41/56/-FB, H, So, BKB, W
Lovell et al862003CohortNo24/64/-AFB, BKB, So, S, O
McCrea et al162003Prospective cohortYes56/94/1631AFB
Peterson et al522003Prospective epidemiologicalNo18/24/350AFB, So, BKB, SB, C
Piland et al82003Cross-sectional experimentalYes16/17/279AFB, So
Bruce et al392004CohortNo29/57/433AFB, H, So, BKB, L, R, O
Iverson et al142004CohortNo-/110/-AFB, BKB, So, H, L, SB, T, V, W
Iverson et al362004CohortNo-/38/-AFB, FB, BB, L
Lavoie et al432004CohortNo10/20/-AFB, H, So, R, W
Lovell et al372004ProspectiveNo-/43/-AFB, So, BKB, IH, L, BB, SB
Pellman et al262004CohortNo-/650/-AFB
Pellman et al292004CohortNo-/143/655AFB
Pellman et al272004CohortNo-/68/-AFB
Pellman et al302004CohortNo-/787/-AFB
Broshek et al152005CohortNo-/131/2340So, AFH, C, L, BKB, W, O, FB
McCrea et al42005CohortYes56/94/1631AFB
McCrory et al62005ReviewNoNANA
Mihalik et al482005Prospective cohortNo-/261/-AFB, BKB, So, H, FH, O
Cavanaugh et al512006Retrospective case seriesNo-/29/-AFB, So, L, FH
Collie et al22006ProspectiveNo84/61/615ARFB
Collins et al872006Prospective cohortYes-/136/2141FB
Covassin et al882006Post-test onlyYes1209/-/-BB, BKB, C, F, FS, FB, G, L, So, SB, V, W
Gosselin et al402006CohortNo10/20/-H, AFB, So
Hynes et al502006Prospective cohortNo-/13/183H
Iverson et al892006CohortYes-/30/-AFB, O
Kirkwood et al252006ReviewNoNANA
Lovell et al222006Prospective with two cohortsYes1746/260/-NR
McClincy et al902006Prospective cohortNo-/104/-AFB, So, BKB, W, H, FH
Pellman et al912006CohortNo-/48/193AFB
Piland et al212006ProspectiveYes1089/-/-FB
Schatz et al472006Prospective cohortYes66/72/-FB, So, IH, FH, BKB, O
Van Kampen et al92006Case controlNo70/122/-AFB, So, BKB, S, T, O
Broglio et al922007Within-groupsYes-/21/-AFB,C, S, O
Broglio et al932007Prospective cohortNo-/75/-FB, So, BKB, SB, C, O
Covassin et al942007Prospective cohortNo-/79/-BB, BKB, C, FB, G, IH, L, So, V, W
Guskeiwicz et al952007Prospective fieldYes-/88/-FB
Lovell et al962007Prospective cohortNo13/28/-NR
Iverson et al972007Case controlNo-/114/-AFB
Mihalik et al982007Prospective cohortYes-/180/-AFB, So, BKB, O
Mihalik et al992007Repeated-measuresNo-/247/-BKB, FB, So, L
Patel et al172007Repeated measuresNo24/-/-Recreational
Covassin et al1002008Repeated-measuresYes-/57/-BKB, So, L, BB, W, SB, V, C, G
Majerske et al1012008Retrospective cohortNo-/95-FB, O
  • AFB, American football; ARFB, Australian rules football; BB, baseball; BD, ballroom dancing; BKB, basketball; C, cheerleading; F, fencing; FH, field hockey; FS, figure skating; G, gymnastics; H, hockey; IH, ice hockey; KB, kick boxing; L, lacrosse; NA, not applicable; NR, not reported; O, other; R, rugby; S, swimming; SB, softball; So, soccer; T, track; V, volleyball; W, wrestling.