Table 2 Concussion mechanism by sport and gender
SportReferenceLevel of participationStudy durationInjury mechanism
Player contactSurfaceBall/puck-stickBoards
Football (soccer)6US college & high school1 yrMFFNA
8, 9US college*15 yrMFFNA
Basketball6US college & high school1 yrMFFNA
10, 11US college16 yrMFFNA
Ice hockey15, 16US college*4 yrMFsimilarsimilar
  • NA, not applicable. Note: Gender (M-male, F-female) with highest % of each mechanism is reported. *Mechanism pattern significantly different by gender—χ2 analysis (p<0.001)