Table 3 Possible explanations for gender differences in sport concussions
BiomechanicalFemales have smaller head to ball ratios or weaker neck muscles23; less head/neck mass than males and increased head mass resulted in decreased linear acceleration24 25; Females exhibit greater angular acceleration of the head and neck.26
CulturalUS society more protective of female athletes.27 Cultural tendencies encourage male athletes to play despite injuries or to avoid reporting injuries; some boys suffering from head injuries may not report their symptoms for fear of being removed from play.28 A reluctance to report injury demonstrated in male high school American football players.29 Female athletes more concerned about the effects of an injury on their future health, and may be more honest in reporting and not as affected as male athletes when told they cannot participate.30
HormonalOestrogen plays a protective role in males, and increase mortality in females.31 Oestrogen can assist in maintaining normal cerebral blood flow, and actually decrease mortality when administered acutely.32