Table 1 Summary of learning strategies
Target audienceLearning strategyGeneral findingsReference
PhysiciansPrinted education materialsIneffective standalone method for enhancing physician performance16, 17
Didactic lecturesNo/limited interaction with presenter; little impact on changing physician performance5, 13
Audit and feedbackVariable effectiveness and moderate impact on physician practice5, 16–18
Education outreachEffective in influencing physician behaviour16
Opinion leadersFurther clarity regarding peer impact is needed16
Interactive education sessionsEffective; allows participants to apply current knowledge16
Patient-mediated interventionsVariable effectiveness17
RemindersForm of reinforcement found to be effective16
Physiotherapists (PT)Problem-based learning (PBL)Conflicting research in medical field; difficulty generalising model to PT education22, 23
Evidence-based learning (EBL)Positive attitude towards EBL; focusing on practical PT needs may be an approach to addressing EBL24
SocialisationEvolve in learning process; focus switches from practice elements towards evaluation and critique of practice application25
Become self-directed learners; progress in what and how they are learning as changes occur in their experiences.
Athletic trainers and therapistsPeer-assisted learning (PAL)Gain knowledge, understanding and skills from peer interaction and experiences26
Peer feedback supplements clinical instructors’ feedback
CoachesReflectionFramework to connect education, theory and practice33
Online learning (Montana model)Access to current, user and administrative friendly materials28
The web-based coaching comprehensive curriculum
Student athleteMultiple intelligencesChildren have strengths and weaknesses in different areas, different intellectual profiles and require different use of intelligences40
Students become self-directed, gain confidence, understand abilities of themselves and others, identify strengths and work on their weaknesses41, 42
Educators learn to appreciate a wider variety of student strengths
Criticised for being too broad for planning curriculum; inadequately supported by evidence43
Peer-support groupsReduces anxiety, depression, anger, confusion and frustration, enhances coping strategies and improves mood53