Table 1

Studies included in the review

AuthorActivityN-total (sex)Injury history*Previous orthosis experience (mo)ParadigmInterventionReview categoryControlComments
Branthwaite et al32Walking9 M10Kinematic
  1. (a)

    (a) Biplanar: tilts calcaneus in frontal and sagittal planes;

  2. (b)

    (b) Cobra: feature and arch profile and heel cup

Posted non-moulded, Posted non-mouldedRunning sandalInsufficient data to calculate CI
Butler et al41Jogging1510Shock attenuation
  1. (a)

    (a) Suborthlene: rigid;

  2. (b)

    (b) EVA foam: soft

Posted non-moulded, Posted non-mouldedShoeHeel counter removed
Eng and Pierrynowski38Walking and jogging10 F3See commentsKinematicFlat Spenco insole postedmedially in rearfoot and forefoot with rubber wedgesPosted non-mouldedShoeParticipants had previously been prescribed orthoses by the same physical therapist and physician, time period not specified
MacLean et al36Jogging12 F2Not statedKinematic, shock attenuationSemirigid thermoplastic functional foot orthosis intrinsically posted to calcaneal vertical and inverted an addition 5°. Featured added EVA rearfoot stabiliser and EVA top coverPosted moulded (inverted)ShoeMeasures taken initially then post 6-weeks of wearing orthosis
MacLean et al37Jogging15 F10KinematicCast to calcaneal vertical and intrinsically posted an additional 5°. Extrinsic rearfoot post and EVA cushioning top coverPosted mouldedShoeAuthors state effect sizes (ES) but do not provide enough data to calculate mean difference and 95% CI
McCulloch et al5Walking at 2 speeds10 (5 M, 5 F)3See commentsKinematicRigid and semirigid posted to correct “biomechanical dysfunction”Posted mouldedShoeReported as “maximum pronation.” However, methodology describes rearfoot eversion
Miller et al42Walking25 (13 M, 12 F)1Not statedShock attenuationCustom plastic polymer orthoses with medial firm heel postPosted mouldedShoeNot enough data to calculated mean differences and 95% CI
Mündermann et al30Jogging21 (9 M, 12 F)10Kinematic, shock attenuation
  1. (a)

    (a) EVA bottom layer with extrinsic 6 mm rearfoot and forefoot post;

  2. (b)

    (b) neutral polypropylene shell;

  3. (c)

    (c) polypropylene shell with extrinsic EVA 6 mm

Posted non-moulded, non-posted moulded, posted mouldedFlat EVA insert in running sandalRan for 2 weeks in running sandal before data collection
Mündermann et al46Jogging20 (9 M, 12 F)1Not statedNeuromotor control
  1. (a)

    (a) Top layer consisted of 3-mm Spenco. Bottom layer consisted of full-length 6-mm EVA wedge;

  2. (b)

    (b) custom polypropylene shell with no extrinsic posting;

  3. (c)

    (c) custom polypropylene shell with 6-mm extrinsic EVA post added to medial rearfoot and forefoot areas

Posted non-moulded, non-posted moulded, posted mouldedFlat EVA insert in running sandalRan for 2 weeks in running sandal before data collection
Murley and Bird47Walking15 (7 M, 10 F)1Not statedNeuromotor controlCustom-made rigid with 15° postPosted mouldedShoeOrthosis worn for 4 weeks before data collection
Nawoczenski and Ludewig44Jogging12 (6 M, 6 F)30Neuromotor controlCustom semirigid polypropylene with extrinsic rearfoot and intrinsic forefoot postPosted mouldedRunning sandalOrthosis worn for 3–4 weeks before data collection. Authors do not provide sufficient data to calculate ES.
Nester et al40108 steps/min15 (8 M, 7 F)1Not statedKinematic, shock attenuationHigh-density EVA with medium density 10° post placed medially laterallyPosted non-mouldedShoeData presented as graphs only
Nigg et al31Jogging15 M10KinematicPrefabricated rigid EVA with 4.5-mm medial or lateral posts:
  1. (a)

    (a) full-length medial;

  2. (b)

    (b) full-length lateral;

  3. (c)

    (c) 0.5 length medial;

  4. (d)

    (d) 0.5 length lateral

Posted non-mouldedManufacturer's insert in shoeInsufficient data to calculate ES
Nigg et al34Jogging12 M10KinematicBilayer orthoses (moulding not specified) made from polyurethane uppers and polyethylene or EVA lower layer:
  1. (a)

    (a) Medium upper (Shore C65), soft EVA lower (shore C75);

  2. (b)

    (b) soft upper (Shore C50), soft polyethylene lower (Shore C78);

  3. (c)

    (c) soft upper (Shore C50), hard lower (Shore C84);

  4. (d)

    (d) hard upper (Shore C70), soft polyethylene lower (Shore C78);

  5. (e)

    (e) hard upper (Shore C70), hard lower (Shore C84)

DensityShoeHeel counter removed. Not enough data provided to calculate mean difference or CI
Nigg et al43Jogging16 M1Not statedShock attenuationCommercially available viscoelastics orthoses with Shore values:
  1. (a)

    (a) 26 (+stabiliser);

  2. (b)

    (b) 28 (+stabiliser);

  3. (c)

    (c) 29 (+stabiliser);

  4. (d)

    (d) 34 (+stabiliser)

DensityShoe with manufacturer's insert ± horse shoe-shaped rearfoot stabiliserWhen compared with shoe with rearfoot stabiliser, orthosis condition also had rearfoot stabiliser.
Stackhouse et al39Jogging1510KinematicSemirigid functional orthotic devises fabricated from suborthelene with neoprene covers with 6° varus postingPosted mouldedShoe2 weeks adjustment period before data collection. Heel counter removed. Insufficient data to calculate CI and ES
Stacoff et al33Walking8 M30Kinematic, neuromotor control
  1. (a)

    (a) Bilayer orthosis (hard lower, soft upper) posted supporting the calcaneus at the sustentaculum tali;

  2. (b)

    (b) hard density, supporting the foot medially and laterally;

  3. (c)

    (c) designed with inbuilt 4 raises (3 mm, 2 mm) at midfoot, metatarsal head and toes

Posted non-moulded, posted moulded, irregular surfaceRunning sandalComparisons made between orthoses and first control trials (start of testing period)
Tomaro and Burdett45Walking10 (3 M, 7 F)2>6Neuromotor controlSporthotic devices, modified to individuals' subtalar neutralPosted mouldedShoe
Williams et al35Jogging11 (5 M, 6 F)2ChronicKinematicCustom-made rigid. Internally posted to the forefoot deformity and externally posted to:
  1. (a)

    (a) 4°;

  2. (b)

    (b) 15° to 30°

Posted moulded, posted moulded (inverted)Shoe
Zifchock and Davis29Walking37 (17 M, 20 F)10KinematicSemigraphite with vinyl covers:
  1. (a)

    (a) custom: made from plaster casts of individuals' foot;

  2. (b)

    (b) semicustom: mould-of-best-fit chosen from range available

Posted moulded, posted mouldedShoeDivided into high and low arch based on arch height index
  • * Injury history: 1, no history of injury; 2, history of injury; 3, current injury.

  • EVA, ethylene-vinyl acetate; M, male; F, female.