Table 4

Tibial internal rotation comparisons of studies where point estimates of effect and confidence intervals were able to be calculated

AuthorsInterventionComparatorMean difference (95% CI)Effect size (ES)
Eng and Pierrynowski38Posted non-mouldedControlWalking: contact −1.9 (−3.45 to −0.35),1.07, 0, 0.17
midstance 0 (−2.29 to 2.29),0.15, 0, 0.26
propulsion −0.4 (−2.46 to 1.66)
Jogging: contact −0.4 (−2.42 to 1.62),
midstance 0.0 (−0.81 to 0.81),
propulsion −0.6 (−2.62 to 1.42)
MacLean et al200836Posted moulded (Inverted)ControlInitial −1.38 (−4.99 to 2.33)0.31
After 6 weeks of wear −0.14 (−4.48 to 4.2)0.03
Mündermann et al30Posted non-mouldedControl−0.5 (−2.95 to 1.95)0.12
Non-posted mouldedControl−0.6 (−2.99 to 1.79)0.15
Posted mouldedControl−0.5 (−2.98 to 1.98)0.12
Non-posted mouldedPosted non-moulded−0.1 (−2.52 to 2.32)0.02
Posted non-mouldedPosted moulded0 (−2.51 to 2.51)0
Non-posted mouldedPosted moulded−0.1 (−2.55 to 2.35)0.02
Nawoczenski et al6Posted moulded (low rearfoot), posted moulded (high rearfoot)Control, controlInternal rotation with respect to rearfoot: 2.0 (−4.31 to 0.31), −2.3 (−6.26 to 1.66)0.76, 0.37
Posted moulded (low rearfoot), posted moulded (high rearfoot)Control, controlTotal internal/external rotation: −1.2 (−4.64 to 2.24), −1.6 (−6.34 to 3.14)0.31, 0.3
Stacoff et al33Posted non-mouldedControl0.3 (−4.16 to 4.76)0.07
Posted mouldedControl−0.2 (−4.71 to 4.31)0.04
Irregular surfaceControl0.4 (−4.06 to 4.86)0.09
Posted mouldedPosted non-moulded−0.5 (−5.96 to 3.96)0.11
Posted non-mouldedIrregular surface−0.1 (−4.51 to 4.31)0.02
Posted mouldedIrregular surface−0.6 (−5.06 to 3.86)0.13
Stacoff et al11Posted non-moulded (anterior)Control−0.54 (−1.37 to 0.29)0.81
Posted non-moulded (posterior)Control−1.59 (−2.97 to −0.21)1.43
Posted non-moulded (posterior)Posted non-moulded (anterior)−1.05 (−2.26 to 0.16)1.07
Williams et al354° posted mouldedControl3.33 (−1.94 to 8.6)0.53
Inverted posted mouldedControl4.5 (−0.23 to 8.77)0.88
4° posted mouldedInverted oosted moulded−1.17 (−5.55 to 3.21)0.22