Table 1

Intervention studies of resistance training in youth

ReferenceParticipantsInterventionInjury outcome
Vrijens, 197825M, ages 10–16 years E  =  28Eight “isotonic”exercises, 1 set/8–12 reps, 3 ×/week, 8 weeksNo injuries
Sewall and Micheli, 198626MF, ages 10–11 years 10E, 8CWeight machine, 3 sets/10 reps, 25–30 minutes, 3 ×/week, 9 weeksNo injuries
Funato et al, 198727MF, ages 6–11 years 52E, 47CMaximum isometric elbow flexion, 2 ×/day, 3 ×/week, 12 weeksNo injuries
Rians et al, 198728M, ages 6–11 years 18E, 10CHydraulic machine circuit, 45 minutes/session, 3 ×/week, 14 weeks, shoulder pain1 injury
Siegal et al, 198929E  =  26M, 24F, 8.4 years C  =  30M, 16F, 8.6 yearsFree weights, tubing, body weight, 30 minutes, 3 ×/week, 12 weeksNo injuries
Ramsay et al, 19903026M, 9–11 years 13E, 13CFree weights and weight machines, 3–5 sets/5–12 reps, 3 ×/week, 20 weeksNo injuries
Faigenbaum et al, 199331MF ages 8–12 years 14E, 9CWeight machines, 7 exercises, 3 sets/10–15 reps, 2 ×/week, 8 weeksNo injuries
Ozmun et al, 199432MF, ages 9–12 years 8E, 8CDumbbell elbow flexion, 3 sets/7–11 reps, 3 ×/week, 8 weeksNo injuries
Faigenbaum et al, 199633MF ages 7–12 years 15E, 9CWeight machines, 7 exercises, 3 sets/6–10 reps, 2 ×/week, 8 weeksNo injuries
Falk and Mor, 199634M ages 6–8 years 14E, 15CBody weight, 3 sets/1–15 reps, 40 minutes, 2 ×/week, 8 weeksNo injuries
Lillegard et al, 199735MF ages 9–15 years 52E, 39CFree weights and machines, 6 exercises, 3 sets/10 reps shoulder strain, 1 h/session, 3 ×/week, 12 weeks1 injury
Hetzler et al, 199736E  =  20M, 12–15 years C  =  10MFree weight and machines, 17 exercises, 1–3 sets/10–12 reps, 3 ×/week, 12 weeksNo injuries
Faigenbaum et al, 199917E  =  22M, 9F, 5–11 years C  = 9M, 3FWeight machines, 11 exercises, 1 set/6–15 reps, 2 ×/week, 8 weeksNo injuries
Sadres et al, 200137E  =  27M, 9–10 years C  =  22MFree weights, 1–4 sets/5–30 reps, 3–6 exercises, 2 ×/week, thigh pain, 21 months1 injury
Pikosky et al, 200238E  =  7M, 4F, 8.6 yearsWeight machines and body weight, 9 exercises, 1–2 sets/10–15 reps, 2 ×/week, 6 weeksNo injuries
Siegal et al, 198929E  =  26M, 24F, 8.4 years C  =  30M, 16F, 8.6 yearsFree weights, tubing, body weight, 30 minutes, 3 ×/week, 12 weeksNo injuries
Flanagan et al, 200239MF, 8–9 years 38E, 20CWeight machines, body weight 1–3 sets/8–15 reps, 2 ×/week, 8 exercises, 40 minutes, 10 weeksNo injuries
Faigenbaum et al, 200240E  =  34M, 21F, 7–12 years C  =  8M, 5F, 9.3 yearsWeight machines, 12 exercises, 1 set/10–15 reps, 1–2 ×/week, 8 weeksNo injuries
Tsolakis et al, 20044119M, 11–13 years 9E, 10CWeight machines, 3 sets, 6 exercises, 2 ×/week, 8 weeksNo injuries
Coutts et al, 20044242M, 16.7 years 21E, 21CFree weights, 4–16 reps/set 7–8 exercises, 3 ×/week, 12 weeksNo injuries
Faigenbaum et al, 20054322M, 19F, 8–12 years C  =  9M, 3FWeight machines, 9 exercises, 1 set/6–20 reps, 2 ×/week, 8 weeksNo injuries
Gonzalez-Badillo et al, 200544E1  =  16M, 16.4 years E2  =  17M, 16.5 years E3  =  18M, 16.8 yearsFree weights, 1–6 reps/1–3 sets, 4–5 ×/week, 10 weeksNo injuries
Faigenbaum and Mediate, 200645E  =  42M, 27F, 15–16 years C  =  35M, 14FMedicine ball, 1–3 sets/5–15 reps, 15–40 exercises, 2 ×/week, 6 weeksNo injuries
Faigenbaum et al, 200746E1  =  14M, 12–15 years E2  =  13MFree weights, body weight 4–12 reps/1–3 sets, 6–18 exercises, 2 ×/week, 6 weeksNo injuries
Faigenbaum et al, 200747E  =  22M, 13.9 yearsFree weights, 3 sets, 1–15 reps 9–10 exercises, 2 ×/week, 8 weeksNo injuries
Szymanski et al, 200748E2  =  25M, 14–18 years E1  =  24M, 14–18 yearsFree weights and medicine ball, 9–15 exercises, 2–3 sets/6–10 reps, 2–3 ×/week, 12 weeksNo injuries
Channell et al, 200849E1  =  11M, 16.4 years E2  =  10M, 16.5 years C  =  6M, 16.8 yearsFree weights and body weight, 3–20 reps/3–5 sets, 8 weeksNo injuries
  • C, control group; E, experimental group; F, female; M, male; reps, repetitions.