Table 3

Sports participation according to type of sport within the asymptomatic control (CON) and the anterior cruciate ligament ruptures (ACL) groups for all female and male participants

Female participantsMale participants
CON (n=81)ACL (n=35)p ValueCON (n=127)ACL (n=82)p Valuep Value**
Contact sports*
 Participants (%)13.6 (11)5.7 (2)0.33965.9 (84)87.8 (72)0.001<0.001
 Participation (years)5.7 ± 3.61.0 ± 0.00.10112.7 ± 7.611.5 ± 7.90.3400.001
Non-contact jumping sports
 Participants (%)34.6 (28)57.1 (20)0.0355.6 (7)13.4 (11)0.083<0.001
 Participation (years)8.2 ± 5.29.3 ± 5.80.49310.9 ± 5.27.0 ± 5.40.1520.918
Non-contact non-jumpingsports
 Participants (%)95.1 (77)94.3 (33)1.00094.4 (120)92.7 (76)0.8150.890
 Participation (years)28.4 ± 20.828.2 ± 22.60.95325.3 ± 17.924.4 ± 22.20.7620.169
Skiing sports§
 Participants (%)3.7 (3)14.3 (5)0.0515.6 (7)9.8 (8)0.3750.925
  • The number of participants is represented as a frequency (%), while the years of participation is represented as a mean±SD. The number of participants (n) is in parentheses.

  • * Soccer, rugby, touch rugby, Gaelic football, muay thai, hurling, Australian football league (AFL) and boxing.

  • Netball, basketball, volleyball, gymnastics, ballet, motorcross, skateboarding, paragliding, handball and sky diving.

  • Field hockey, cricket, tennis, horseback riding, running, bicycling, spinning, squash, swimming, aerobics, yachting, athletics (excluding long and triple jump), golf, dancing, tennis, canoeing, waterpolo, surfing, windsurfing, badminton, gym training, bowls, triathlon, softball and lifesaving.

  • § Any mode of water or snow skiing.

  • CON vs ACL.

  • ** Male (CON + ACL) vs female (CON + ACL) participants.