Table 2

Description of strengthening exercises used during 8-week intervention programme depicted in figures 1–3

Y to WSubjects formed the letter ‘Y’ with their arms and body by starting with their arms flexed and abducted to 120° with their torso. With thumbs pointed up, subjects first retracted and depressed their scapula, making sure that the upper trapezius were relaxed. Then they raised their arms 4–5 inches. Maintaining retraction of the scapula, they flexed their elbows and moved into a position of shoulder extension, so that their arms formed the letter ‘W’
L to YSubjects began with arms abducted to 90° and elbows flexed to 90°. Subjects then retracted their scapula and externally rotated their arms, keeping 90° of shoulder abduction for the entire exercise. Maintaining retraction of the scapula, they raised their arms above the head and fully extended the elbows so that they formed the letter ‘Y’
Scapular protractionSubjects were positioned in a prone hip bridge with forearms and toes supporting the body on the floor or table. They then pushed up 1–2 cm, protracting the scapula, but actively attempting to prevent winging of the scapul