Table 3

Univariate Cox regression models for male and female participants

Male (n = 207)Female (n = 422)
HR (95% CI)p ValueHR (95% CI)p Value
Sex1.3 (0.96 to 1.80)0.091.0
Increase of age by 10 years0.69 (0.53 to 0.90)0.006*0.98 (0.96 to 1.01)0.15
BMI (kg/m2)1.03 (0.95 to 1.11)0.471.08 (1.02 to 1.14)0.012*
Motivation
 Competition1.01.0
 Health-oriented1.49 (0.84 to 2.66)0.171.08 (0.70 to 1.67)0.73
Previous sports activity
 Previously active (axial load)1.01.0
 Previously active (non-axial load)0.95 (0.44 to 2.05)0.901.84 (1.06 to 3.19)0.029*
 Not previously active1.14 (0.61 to 2.14)0.681.64 (0.95 to 2.83)0.077
Running experience
 No previous running experience2.20 (1.06 to 4.58)0.035*2.32 (1.34 to 4.02)0.003*
 Restarting running1.95 (1.001 to 3.81)0.050*1.31 (0.75 to 2.28)0.35
 Already participating in running1.01.0
 Previous weekly running frequency (n=155)1.08 (0.59 to 1.97)0.811.92 (0.94 to 3.93)0.075
 Previous running hours per week (n=155)0.998 (0.99 to 1.01)0.651.004 (0.99 to 1.01)0.38
Previous injury of lower extremity
 No previous injury1.01.0
 <1 year0.66 (0.34 to 1.31)0.241.29 (0.81 to 2.05)0.28
 ≥1 year0.98 (0.57 to 1.69)0.940.86 (0.52 to 1.43)0.57