Table 4

Multivariate Cox regression models for male and female participants

Male (n = 207)Female (n = 422)
HR (95% CI)p ValueHR (95% CI)p Value
Sex1.42 (1.02 to 1.99)0.041*1.0
Increase of age by 10 years0.63 (0.48 to 0.82)0.001*0.82 (0.66 to 1.02)0.069
BMI (kg/m2)1.02 (0.94 to 1.11)0.581.06 (1.01 to 1.13)0.028*
Previous sports activity
 Previously active (axial load)1.01.0
 Previously active (non-axial)0.88 (0.41 to 1.93)0.761.85 (1.07 to 3.21)0.029*
 Not previously active1.08 (0.57 to 2.04).811.53 (0.88 to 2.66)0.130
Running experience
 Already participating in running1.01.0
 Restarting running2.24 (1.13 to 4.45)0.021*1.15 (0.65 to 2.02)0.63
 No previous running experience2.61 (1.23 to 5.53)0.012*2.14 (1.24 to 3.70)0.007*