Table 3

Costs and cost-effectiveness per participant by treatment group

ELE, $AProlotherapy, $ACombined treatment, $A
Intervention costs
Medicare costs*259460433
Non-trial costs
Medicare costs*46250
GP and specialist visits4629
Allied health professionals25079
Other costs18061
Total non-trial costs14130158
Total cost per patient400490591
Responders (at 12 mo)0.7330.7860.857
Incremental analysis (vs ELE alone)
Additional costs, $A90191
Additional responders0.0520.124
ICER ($A /responder)17161539
Sensitivity analysisICER, $AICER, $A
+20% intervention costs34732238
−20% intervention costsDominates839
+20% non-trial costs18311793
−20% non-trial costs16021284
+10% responders687714
−10% respondersDominated§5001
  • * Includes assessment and treatment. These costs are fully covered by Medicare, the government health insurance scheme.The general practitioners and specialist visit costs are in addition to those reimbursed by Medicare and are incurred by the patient.

  • A proportion of those costs may be reimbursed to the patient depending on the level of cover of any health insurance they may have.

  • A strategy dominates where greater health benefits are obtained at a lower cost than the comparator.

  • § A strategy is said to be dominated where fewer health benefits are obtained at a higher cost than the comparator.