Table 2

Characteristics of included studies

Author (year)Study designPopulationNGroups (n, mean age±SD, f:m)Factors investigated (bold are significant) demographicsAnthropometricsSports-related factorsStrength/flexibility
Cook et al (2004)11CSJunior (ages 14–18 years) elite basketball players (m/f)135Female (64, NA)UL abnormality (8, NA)BL abnormality (8, NA)CON (48, NA)Male (71, NA)UL abnormality (17, NA)BL abnormality (16, NA)CON (38, NA)Height, weight, skinfolds, arm span/heightSit and reach (m: BL vs CON)/f: (UL vs CON), agility, speed, endurance, vertical jump height (f)
Crossley et al (2007)14CCParticipants in competitive basketball, netball, volleyball, soccer or tennis (m/f)58UL PT (14, 26±7, 4:10)BL PT (13, 28±8, 4:9)CON (31, 24±6, 11:20)SexWeight, BMI, arch height during maximal weight bearing, leg-length differenceSport h/week (BL vs CON)Sit-and-reach test, ankle flexibility, active knee extension (BL vs CON), normalised peak knee extensor moment (UL vs CON), calf endurance, hop test
Ferretti et al (1984)16CSCompetitive volleyball players (m/f)407PT (93, NA, 19:74)CON (314, NA, NA)Age, sexYears of play, frequency of play, playing surface, strength training
Gaida et al (2004)12CSElite basketball players (f)39UL PT (8, 20±2)BL PT (7, 21±3)CON (24, 21±3)Age, menstrual historyHeight, weight, tibial length to stature ratio (UL vs CON), waist-to-hip ratio (UL vs CON)Training h/week (last 6 months)Sit-and-reach test, concentric strength, eccentric strength, jump height
Krauss et al (2007)15CCRunners (f)46PT (20, 37.6±8.9)CON (26, 39.9±5.7)Training-specific dataMaximum concentric and eccentric peak torque (60º/s), relative peak torques, concentric hamstring-quadriceps-quotient, eccentric quotient
Kujala et al (1986)7CCCompetitive players of volleyball, running, orienteering, basketball or other sports (m)40Patellar apicitis (=PT) (20, 27.4±6.4)CON (20, 27.6±6.0)Weight, height-to-weight ratio, leg-length inequality, knee laxity, Q-angle displacement, maximal knee hyperextensionFlexion torque, extension torque
Lian et al (1996)8CSCCDivision I and II volleyball players (m)14124(1) With PT (55, 24.8±4.2)Without PT (86, 24.6±4.6)(2) (subgroup)Patients (12, 23.7±3.0)CON (12, 24.8±4.6)Age(1) Height, weightNumber of seasons played, number of volleyball training sessions/week, strength training, jump training, warming up, stretching(2) Jump performance
Lian et al (2003)10CSDivision I volleyball players (m)44PT (24, 22.4±5.5)CON (20, 22.0±4.0)AgeHeight, weightYears of volleyball, training h/week, jump training, stretching, strength trainingJump performance
Malliaras et al (2006)13CSCompetitive volleyball players (m/f)190Imaging tendon abnormality without pain (50, NA, NA)Imaging tendon abnormality with pain (53, NA, NA)Controls (87, NA, NA)Years of volleyball, weekly activityAnkle dorsiflexion range, sit-and-reach test, jump height, ankle flexion strength
Malliaras et al (2007)17CSCompetitive volleyball players (m/f)113Female tendonsnormal imaging (19, NA)abnormal imaging UL (16, NA)abnormal imaging BL (5, NA)Male tendonsnormal imaging (24, NA)abnormal imaging UL (21, NA)abnormal imaging BL (28, NA)Height, weight (m), BMI (m), waist girth (m), hip girth (m), waist-to-hip ratio (m)
Witvrouw et al (2001)9PCStudents following sports programme in physical education (m/f)138PT (19, 18.8±1.2, NA)CON (119, 18.9±1.6, NA)AgeHeight, weight, Q-angle, leg-length difference and medial tibial intercondylar distanceQuadriceps flexibility, hamstring flexibility, quadriceps strength, hamstring strength
  • BL, bilateral; BMI, body mass index; CC, case–control study; CON, controls; CS, cross-sectional study; f, female; m, male; NA, not available; PC, prospective cohort study; PT, patellar tendinopathy/tendinitis; UL, unilateral.