Table 2

Overview of the studies included in the updated review, classified by effectiveness on PA, fitness and motor skills

Study (first author and year of publication)Outcome measure: outcome instrumentTotal PAPA in school or LTPAFitnessMotor skills
Angelopoulos 2009PA: quest+ (LTPA)
Boyle-Holmes 2010PA: quest, FIT: field, MS: qual+ (4th grade)0+
Gentile 2009PA: ped, quest0 (all), + (girls)
de Barros 2009PA: quest+
Gorely 2009PA: ped, accss, FIT: field+, (+ Accss)0
Graf 2008FIT: field, MS: quant0+ (1 of 4 tests)
Haerens 2007PA: quest, accss0, (+ Accss)+ (PA in school), 0 (LTPA)
Kriemler 2010PA: acc, FIT: field++ (PAin school)+
de Meij 2010PA: quest, accss, FIT: field(0 Accss)+ (Sport participation)0
McNeil 2009PA: quest+ (LTPA)
Naylor 2008PA: ped, questss, FIT: fieldss+ (Boys)+ss
Resaland 2009FIT: Vo2max+
Ridgers 2007PA: acc, hr+ (Recess, lunch)
Salmon 2008PA: acc, MS: qual+0 (all), + (girls)
Schneider 2008PA: quest, FIT: Vo2max++ (LTPA)+
Simon 2008PA: quest+ (LTPA)
Sollerhed 2008FIT: field, MS: quant++
Taymoori 2008PA: quest+
Verstraete 2007PA: quest, obsss, accss, FIT: field, MS: quant(+ Accss)+ (LTPA), + (obsss), 0 (Accss)00
Walther 2009FIT: Vo2max, MS: quant+0
SummaryPA only (n=8)+ (n=6)+ (n=8)+ (n=5)+ (n=3)
+ss (n=3)+ss (n=1)
FIT only (n=4)+sg(n=3)+sg (n=1)
Combined (n=8)0 (n=2)0 (n=1)0 (n=5)0 (n=2)
0ss (n=1)
NA (n=8)NA (n=11)NA (n=9)NA (n=14)
  • ss Subsample, random subset of individuals from within the whole population.

  • sg Subgroup, group within the study population with a defined characteristic (ie, gender, grade).

  • +, significant positive effect of the intervention; +ss, significant effect in a subsample; sg, significant effect in a subgroup; 0, no effect of the intervention; 0ss, no effect in a subsample.

  • Acc, PA measured by accelerometers; field, fitness assessed by field test; FIT, fitness; hr, PA assessed by heart rate; LTPA, leisure time physical activity; MS, motor skills; NA, not applicable/not assessed; obs, PA assessed by observation; PA, physical activity; ped, PA measured by pedometers; qual, qualitative assessment of motor skills; quant, quantitative assessment of motor skills; quest, questionnaire based PA assessment; TPA, total physical activity; Vo2max, fitness assessed by measurement of maximal oxygen uptake.