Table 1

Bone and joint outcomes

Authors, yearRS (n)Control (n)TestMeasurement methodResults (mean±SD)
Frigg et al, 2007225252*x-Rays
  1. Talus height (mm)

  2. Radius (mm)

  3. Tibiotalar sector (°)

  1. NS

  2. RS: 21.1±2.4,

    Control: 17.7±1.9, p<0.001

  3. 3. RS: 80±5.11,

    Control: 88.4±7.2, p<0.001

Magerkurth et al, 2008235252*x-Rays
  1. Medial and lateral malleolar length (mm)

  2. Frontal curve of talus (mm)

  3. Position of tibial COR (mm)

  4. Distance fibular tip to COR (mm)

  1. NS

  2. RS: deeper 1.8±0.5

    Control: 1.0±0.5, p<0.05

  3. RS: anterior 2.5±1.9,

    Control: 1.6±2.2, p<0.05

  4. NS

Hubbard et al, 2006323030FluoroscopyFibular position (mm)Fibula more anterior:
RS: 14.3±3.1
Control: 16.8±3.4, p=0.045
Wikstrom et al, 2009332424
  1. x-Rays

  2. Instrumented AP draw Test

  1. Fibular position

  2. Force/displacement curve with 150 N on tibia posteriorly (N/mm)

  1. NS

  2. RS: 14.95± 2.04, Control: 14.01± 2.6, p=0.045

Boyle et al, 1998262567ROMActive inversion in 42° pF (°)NS
Brown et al, 2004341010ROMPassive dorsi-/plantarflexion in-/eversion using biodex dynamometer (°)NS
Hartsell et al, 199738715
  1. ROM

  2. Passive torque vs angle curves

  1. Passive inversion in 30°pF (°)

  2. Inversion rate of 5–6°/s used with torque values collected at 5° intervals and max

  1. NS

  2. NS

Yildiz et al, 20033689ROMActive plantar/dorsiflexion and in-/eversion using electrogoniometer (°)NS
McKnight et al, 1997371514
  1. ROM

  2. Manual Stress Test

  1. pF, dorsiflexion, inversion and eversion using goniometry (°)

  2. Talar tilt and anterior draw

  1. NS

  2. NS

Santos et al, 2008242116Instrumented passive ankle stiffnessNeutral to end of range inversion at 5°/sNS
  • Raw data are presented if the differences between groups were statistically significant.

  • * Age- and sex-matched.

  • COR, centre of rotation; °, degrees; NS, not significant; pF, plantarflexion; ROM, range of motion; RS, recurrent sprain group.