Table 2

Strength outcomes

Authors, yearRS (n)Control (n)TestMeasurement methodResults (mean±SD)
McKnight et al, 1997371514Concentric pF, dorsiflexion, inversion and eversionPeak torque normalised for body weight using isokinetic dynamometer at 30°/sNS
Willems et al, 2002391053Concentric and eccentric inversion and eversionPeak torque and normalised for BW in 10° pF using isokinetic dynamometer at 30 and 120°/s. Ratios in-/eversion and con-/eccentric were processed.Normalised concentric eversion 30 and 120°/s:
RS: 0.31±0.02 Nm/kg and 0.3±0.02
Control: 0.41±0.01 and 0.38±0.01, p=0.048 and 0.024
Normalised eccentric eversion 120°/s:
RS: 0.36±0.02 Nm/kg
Control: 0.46±0.01
All other values NS
Hartsell et al, 199951410Concentric and eccentric inversion and eversionConcentric, eccentric peak torque and eccentric/concentric ratios using isokinetic dynamometer at 60, 120, 180, 240°/sTorque at 120°/s
Concentric inversion
RS: 16.6±5.3 Nm
Control: 24±6
Eccentric inversion
RS: 24.6±6.6 Nm
Control: 32.6±6.6, Concentric eversion
RS: 13.8±5 Nm
Control: 20±8.3
Eccentric eversion
RS: 23.7±7.4 Nm
Control: 33.3±13.3
Overall concentric and eccentric inversion and eversion p=0.017 and 0.008 and p=0.039 and 0.024
Ratios: NS
Yildez et al, 20033689Concentric inversion and eccentric eversionIn 10–15° pF using isokinetic dynamometer at 120°/s peak torque and in-/eversion ratios were obtained at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20° of inversionEecc/Icon ratios
at 15 and 20°
RS: 2.2±0.6 and 2.6±0.7
Control: 3.9±1.7 and 4.9±2.5, p<0.05
All other values NS
Bernier et al, 19974199Eccentric inversion and eversionPeak torque using isokinetic dynamometer at 90°/sNS
Kaminski et al, 1999402121*Concentric, eccentric and isometric eversionPeak torque (standard and normalised for body weight) using isokinetic dynamometer at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180°/sNS
Santos et al, 2008242116Isometric eversionPeak torque in 15° pF and inversionDid not report between-group differences
RS injured: 11.6±3.9 Nm
Control left: 10.9±4
Right: 11±4,
Between-side differences p<0.01
  • Raw data presented are either those used in the meta-analysis or where the differences between groups were statistically significant.

  • * Matched for height, weight, age, body type and activity level.

  • Data taken from graphs.

  • NS, not significant; pF, plantarflexion; RS, recurrent sprain group.