Table 3

Postural stability outcomes

Authors, yearRS (n)Control (n)TestMeasurement methodResults (mean±SD)
Baier et al, 1998422222Single leg stance eyes openCOP velocity, pattern and area on force platformNS
Michell et al, 2006461616Single leg stance eyes openCOP excursion in AP and ML directions from force platformNS
Ross et al, 200461414Single leg stance eyes openCOP sway in ML and AP directionsNS
Santos et al, 2008242116Single leg stance eyes openCOP areaNS
Lee et al, 20064488Single leg stance eyes open and closedMean radius of COP from force platformEORS: 0.0874±0.0061 cm
Control: 0.0698±0.004
ECRS: 0.0894±0.0074 cm,
Control: 0.07965±0.007, p<0.05
McKeon et al, 2008453232 matched for gender and sideSingle leg stance eyes open and closedTime to boundary of COP from forceplate in AP and ML directionsEO: NS
EC: ML absolute minima RS 0.48±0.1 s, Control 0.53±0.1, p=0.03
AP absolute, mean and SD minima
RS: 1.36±0.4 s, 4.71±1.14, 2.97±0.84,
Control: 1.61±0.47, 5.51±1.63, 3.53±1.21, p=0.03, 0.03 and 0.03
Mitchell et al, 2008471919Single leg stance eyes open and closedPostural sway in ML and AP directionsEO: AP
RS: 3.23±0.68 cm,
Control dominant: 2.77±0.3, p<0.001
ML RS: 14.46±4.41 cm, Control dominant: 10.13±3.53, p<0.001
Pintsaar et al, 1996251512Single leg stance eyes open on moving platformResponse latency
Ankle versus hip strategy
Medial perturbations RS demonstrated less ankle movement compared to controls
Other values NS
Rozzi et al, 1999481313Single leg stance eyes open on stable and unstable platformSway indexStable platform: NS
Unstable platform
RS: 5.93±3.65,
Control: 4.67±3.43, p<0.05
Nakagawa et al, 2004311919
  1. Single leg stance eyes open on

    • (a) stable surface

    • (b) foam pad

  2. Star excursion balance test

  1. COP total excursion

  2. Distance reached standardised to height and averaged over four directions

1 (a) RS: 84.82±12.92 cm
Control: 77.07±9.6, p=0.04(b) RS: 87.7±8.43 cm
Control: 81.6±8.44, p=0.032. NS
Bernier et al, 19974199Dual and single leg stance, eyes open and closed under static and dynamic conditionsSway index (SD of time and distance spent away from centre of balance)NS
Fu et al, 2005431920Sensory Organisational Test (Balance with (1) EO fixed platform, (2) EC fixed platform, (3) moving visual field fixed platform, (4) EO moving platform, (5) EC moving platform, (6) moving visual field and platform)Sway angle calculated from AP movementStage 3, 4 and 6: NS
Stage 1
RS: 0.8±0.2°
Control: 0.7±0.1
Stage 2
RS: 1.1±0.3°
Control: 0.9±0.2
Stage 5
RS: 5.7±1.4°
Control: 4.5±1.3, p<0.05
  • Raw data presented are either those used in the meta-analysis or where the differences between groups were statistically significant.

  • AP, anteroposterior; COP, centre of pressure; EC, eyes closed; EO, eyes open; ML, mediolateral; NS, not significant; RS, recurrent sprain group.