Table 5

Perturbation outcomes

Authors, yearRS (n)Control (n)TestMeasurement methodResults (mean±SD)
Mitchell et al, 2008541919Dual leg stance tilting into 3° inversion and 20° pFReaction time of tib ant, per long and brevis, extensor digitorum longus1. Perturbed limb
Tib ant:
RS: 66.04±12.88 ms
Dominant: 55.75±9.71
Per long
RS: 62.82±11.27 ms Dominant: 54.77±6.46
Per brev
RS: 65.46±11.15 ms
Dominant: 56.86±8.05, p<0.01 for all
2. Support limb
Tib ant:
RS: 121.33±33.44 ms
Dominant: 92.05±35.04
Per long
RS: 113.26±32.51 ms
Dominant: 89.95±23.85
Ext long:
RS: 118.32±36.01 ms
Dominant: 95.68±26.69, p<0.025 for all
Eechaute et al, 2009534030Dual leg stance with 50° inversion tiltLatency and electromechanical delay of per long, inversion time, mean and max inversion speed, first and second deceleration pointsElectromech time
RS: 23.6±3.9 ms
Control: 19.8±2.7, p=0.001
2nd deceleration time
RS: 96.1±10.8 ms
Control: 101.4±9.5,
All other values NS
Vaes et al, 20013087Dual leg stance with 50° inversion tiltTime of total supination, first deceleration point, second deflection point, per long latencyTotal supination time
RS: 109.3±15.7 ms
Control: 124.1±10.3, p=0.006
Latency time
RS: 58.9±12.0 ms
Control: 47.7±12.1, p=0.017
Other values NS
Vaes et al, 2002294041Dual leg stance with 50° inversion tiltTime of total inversion, first deceleration point, second deceleration point, per long latency, eversion movementFirst deceleration point
RS: 25.5±5.3 ms
Control: 28.4±5.7, p<0.01
Other values NS
Brown et al 2007522020Nociceptive stimulus to tibial nerveCOP excursion length, velocity, area, time to stabilisation AP and MLAP stabilisation time
RS: 0.78±0.12 s
Control: 0.71±0.09, p=0.04
Other values NS
Santos et al 2008282018Nociceptive stimulus to lateral ankle
  1. Ankle and knee angles

  2. Vertical force magnitude and latency

  3. EMG of tib ant, soleus, peroneals

  1. NS

  2. Magnitude

    RS: 38.81±27.49 N

    Control: 11.71±11.71, p<0.01


    RS: 107.80±29.19 ms

    Control: 147.97±49.76, p < 0.01

  3. RS: Soleus activity less inhibited after perturbation

  • Raw data presented are either those used in the meta-analysis or where the differences between groups were statistically significant.

  • AP, anteroposterior; COP, centre of pressure; ML, mediolateral; NS, not significant; per brev, peroneus brevis; per long, peroneus longus; pF, plantarflexion; RS, recurrent sprain group; Tib ant, tibialis anterior.