Table 1

Summary of protocols' characteristics that evaluated the effectiveness of exercise-induced dehydration on TT performances

References (alphabetical order)No of subjects, gender and ageExercise protocolAmbient temperature (°C)Relative humidity level (%)End-of-exercise body-weight loss/gain (%)
Bachle et al410 recreationally trained subjects, 4 men, 6 women, 29±6 years1 h self-paced laboratory-based cycling TT2172Experimental group: –1.0Control group: +0.8
Backx et al58 trained cyclists, 8 men, 0 woman, 29±7 years1 h self-paced laboratory-based cycling TT2070Backx et al (2003a*)
LF trial: –1.7
FAM trial: –0.9Backx et al (2003b)
MF trial: –1.3
HF trial: –0.7Backx et al (2003c)
LF trial: –1.7
HF trial: –0.7Backx et al (2003d)
MF trial: –1.34
FAM trial: –0.88
Dugas et al76 highly trained cyclists, 6 men, 0 woman; 23±4 years80 km long cycling TT3350Dugas et al (2009a)
0 trial: –4.3
100 trial: –0.5Dugas et al (2008b)
33 trial: –2.9
100 trial: –0.5Dugas et al (2008c)
Ad Lib trial: –2.1
100 trial: –0.5Dugas et al (2008d)
66 trial: –1.9
100 trial: –0.5Dugas et al (2008e)
WET trial: –3.9
100 trial: –0.5
Kay and Marino67 healthy cyclists, 6 men, 1 woman, 21±3 years1 h self-paced laboratory-based cycling TTModerate F vs NF:19.8; Warm F vs NF:33.2All trials: 63Marino et al (2003a)
Warm NF trial: –2.2
Warm F trial: 0Marino et al (2003b)
Moderate NF trial: –1.8
Moderate F trial: 0
Robinson et al38 endurance-trained subjects, 8 men, 0 woman, 26±4 years1 h self-paced laboratory-based cycling TT2060Experimental group: –2.3Control group: –0.9
  • 0, no fluid; 33, 33% fluid replacement; 66, 66% fluid replacement; 100, 100% fluid replacement; Ad Lib, ad libitum drinking; F, fluid; FAM, familiarisation; HF, high fluid; LF, low fluid; MF, medium fluid; NF, no fluid; TT, time trial; WET, mouth rinsing only;* letters match those found in the Forest plot.