Table 1


RefAuthor/journalYearStudy typePatientsOutcomeLOE
16Morikawa et al
Med Sci Sports Exerc
2001Controlled trial26 female runners, 23 age-matched controlsExercise-trained females have a high level of orthostatic intolerance during LBNP. Increase in leg compliance may play an important role2
17Levine et al
1991Controlled trial7 athletes and 6 controlsEndurance athletes have greater diastolic chamber compliance and distensibility than non-athletes2
18Levine et al
J Appl Physiol
1991Controlled trial8 high fit, 8 mid fit and 8 low-fit athletesCalf compliance and carotid baroreflex response contributed to individualised response to LBNP2
19Esch et al
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol
2007Controlled trial8 athletes and 8 controlsEndurance athletes had larger increases in left ventricular end-diastolic volume compared with non-athletes despite similar right ventricular cavity area2
20Esch et al
J Appl Physiol
2010Controlled trial8 athletes and 8 controlsEndurance athletes demonstrated a decreased left ventricular untwisting rate compared with non-athletes2
Med Sci Sports Exerc
2003Controlled trial8 menExpansion of vascular volume after exercise is associated with reduced heart rate response to baroreceptor stimulation2
22Ogoh et al
J Appl Physiol
2006Clinical trial8 menCardiopulmonary baroreflex may be reset during exercise to a new operating point associated with exercise-induced change in cardiac filling volume2
23Ogoh et al
J Physiol
2003Clinical trial14 menHighly fit individuals depend more on maintenance of venous return to maintain upright body position2
Med Sci Sports Exerc
1993Critical reviewNAIncreased stroke volume is the main mechanism of compensation in aerobic trained individuals3
  • LBNP, lower body negative pressure; LOE, level of evidence.