Table 1

Unit costs for cost variables and sources

Unit cost2004200520062007
Transport to exercise mileage* (GST incl)18.2 cents/km19.3 cents/km21.8 cents/km20.5 cents/km
GP visit cost (NZ$) to patient 45–64 years (65+ years) (GST incl)
 Unsubsidised49.00 (23.50)51.67 (25.00)32.17 (28.75)31.00 (29.82)
 Community Services Card (CSC)§28.67 (22.17)31.00 (21.86)31.15 (27.00)29.42 (28.33)
 High User card§27.83 (21.33)28.67 (20.33)29.75 (26.58)29.00 (27.92)
 Accident related (ACC)§18.50 (15.17)11.67 (11.67)16.83 (20.33)20.33 (20.33)
 Other health provider§ (GST incl)47.80/h47.80/h49.00/h61.57/h
After hours GP visit§ (GST incl) (NZ$)
 Unsubsidised72.5073.5077.5081.00
 CSC57.5058.5062.5066.00
 High User card58.0058.5063.0066.00
 ACC55.0048.0056.5059.50
Secondary care visit (GST excl) (NZ$)
 InpatientVarious based on diagnosis
 Outpatient initial**226.55250.09288.30300.86
 Outpatient follow-up**130.91179.17201.86210.63
 Emergency department**173.27182.39160.15167.17
 Loss of productivity
 Days off work††Various based on age
Intervention‡‡ (cost (NZ$) per participant)
 Primary care nurse component14.09
 Regional sports trust support component75.22
  • * NZ Automobile Association car running costs.

  • Mean costs from general practice consultation cost information.

  • Patient copayments reduced over time due to a change in funding structure of general practice government subsidisation.

  • § A Community Services Card is for those on low incomes and allows a subsidised visit; High User (HU) indicates frequent healthcare use and attracts a larger government subsidy and CP subsidies apply where several comorbidities exist. Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) is a government-funded accident insurance scheme, but small patient copayments are usually required at each consultation. ACC provided the information about ACC costs.14

    Mean cost calculated from after-hours clinic consultation cost information.

  • From New Zealand Health Information Service.15

  • ** Capital Coast Health District Health Board, National Purchase Unit Cost (outpatient visit, Emergency Department).

  • †† From Statistics New Zealand.17

  • ‡‡ The Green Prescription programme has been running since 1996. Therefore, the set-up costs for the programme have not been included in this analysis.

  • GST, Goods and Services Tax, is the New Zealand equivalent of European value added tax. GST is applied at a uniform rate of 12.5% to almost all commodities, including healthcare provision.

  • excl, exclusive; incl, inclusive.