Table 1

Adaptations to training

Cardiovascular↑ Enlarged LV cavity size↑ Cardiac contractility
↑ Enlarged LV wall thickness↑ Stroke volume; ↑ Cardiac output
↑ Heart mass↑ Diastolic function
↑ Left ventricular compliance↓ Total peripheral resistance
↑ Left atrial dimensions↑ Venous return
? Pericardial remodelling↓ Pericardial constraint
Haematological↑ Red cell mass↑ Total blood volume
↑ Plasma volume↑ O2-carrying capacity
Muscle↑ Mitochondrial density↑ Rate of energy production
↑ Capillary/fibre ratio↑ Rate of force production
↑ Type 1 fibres
↑ Mitochondrial oxidative enzymes
↑ Neural recruitment
RespiratoryNone↑ Respiratory muscle endurance
↑ Respiratory muscle strength
↑ Ve/VO2
  • LV, left ventricular.