Table 1

Main recommendations to limit chlorine-byproduct exposure in bathers and swimmers attending indoor chlorinated swimming pools45

Swimmers' behaviourTo respect bare feet zones.
To use a swimsuit reserved exclusively for swimming.
To wear a swim cap.
To respect personal hygiene precautions before entering the pool.
To take off makeup and other cosmetics.
To take a shower with soap before entering the pool.
Pool accessory equipment (buoys, water lines, goggles, balls and so on) must be appropriately maintained at all times and used exclusively in the pool.
Premises' organisationTo avoid crossing between dirty and clean areas (only one direction).
Footbath should contain water disinfected by chlorine at a residual concentration of 5 mg/l.
Ventilation equipment should be regularly maintained.
Overflow tank should be easily accessible and equipped with efficient mechanically driven ventilation.
A stripping system should be installed.
Water treatmentTo respect the maximal cut-off proposed by the WHO – freshwater provision should be of 30 l/bather/day.
Management of air qualityFlow rate of fresh air should be of at least 60 m3/h.
Maximum cut-off for NCl3 in the air should be reduced to 0.3 mg/m3.
Recommendations, baby swimmingInfant swimmers and their supervisors should have a pool for their exclusive use.
Babies should wear disposable diapers adapted to water.
Before swimming session:
 Water temperature should be 32°C.
 Air temperature should be set according to water temperature.
 Water should have been double renewed before the beginning of the session.
 The maximum cut-off for NCl3 in the water should be 0.2 mg/m3.
 Maximum turbidity cut-off should be 0.2 FNU.
 Ventilation should not be stopped or reduced the night before the session.
 When possible, a fresh air ventilation of swimming pool and hall should be done at least 1 h before the session.
After swimming session:
 Completely renew the water.
 Disinfect the pool with chlorine at the maximal cut-off authorised during a few hours.
Recommendations for workers and swimmersTo regularly measure the level of NCl3 in the air.
  • This table was developed according to the recommendations from the ‘Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail’.45

  • FNU, Formazine Nephelometric Unit.