Table 2

Contributing factors for cervical spine injury in rugby

StudyCountryPeriodPositionAgePhase of playNeuro damageInjury typeMechanism of injurySpinal level
McLean et al15UK1996–2010Not reported16.5TackleScrum A (n=8)DislocationNot reportedC5/6
Bohu et al9France1996–2006Forwards/hooker25.1Scrum 1996–2000; tackle 2001–2006UnclearDislocationHyperflexionC3–C7
Shelly et al5Ireland1995–2004Backs/fullback21.6TackleTackle A (n=4)Not reportedHyperflexionC5/6
Silver13England1983 1987Forwards13–43ScrumUnclearNot reportedNot reportedNot reported
Silver6England1952–1982ForwardsNot reportedTackleUnclearDislocationHyperflexionC5/6
Williams and McKibbin10Wales1974–1978Forwards/prop20.8SplitTackle A (n=2); scrum A (n=2)DislocationHyperflexionC5/6
Williams and McKibbin30Wales1964–1984Forwards/prop22.0ScrumScrum severe injury (n=9)Dislocation/subluxationHyperflexionC5/6
Dunn and van der Spruy16South Africa2003 2008Forwards and backs/prop and scrumhalf25.3TackleUnclear A (n=8)DislocationNot reportedNot reported
Hermanus et al17South Africa1980–2007Forwards/hooker21.0TackleUnclear A/B (n=146)DislocationNot reportedC4/5
Carmody, et al18Australia1997–2002Forwards24.4TackleScrum A (n=3)Dislocation, fracture dislocation, fractureNot reportedC4/5, C5/6
Spinecare Foundation31Australia1986–1996Forwards/hooker24.5Rucks and maulsNo relationshipDislocationNot reportedC4/5, C5/6
Armour, et al3New Zealand1976–1995Forwards/hooker22.9ScrumUnclearNot reportedHyperflexionC5/6
Palairet and Xiong32New Zealand1996–2000ForwardsNot reportedTackleNot reportedNot reportedNot reportedC4/5, C5/6
Secin et al4Argentina1977–1997Forwards/hooker22.0ScrumScrum A (n=10)Dislocation/fracturesHyperflexionC5/6