Table 1

Maternal characteristics

EG (n=40)CG (n=43)p value
Maternal characteristics
Maternal age (year)32±431±3>0.05
Body mass index before pregnancy (kg/m2)22.7±2.823±2.9>0.05
Smoking habits (n/%)
 Yes2/53/7>0.05
 No27/67.527/62.8
 Before pregnancy, not now11/27.513/30.2
Alcohol intake (n/%)
 Yes2/53/7>0.05
 No38/9540/93
Occupational activity (n/%)
 Sedentary job21/52.523/53.5>0.05
 Housewife4/107/16.3
 Active job15/37.513/30.2
Hours standing (n/%)
 >3 h18/4517/39.5>0.05
 <3 h22/5526/60.5
Maternal education (n/%)
 <High school0/016/37.2<0.05
 High school7/17.521/48.8
 >High school33/82.56/14
Parity
 0 gestation before26/6521/48.8>0.05
 1 gestation before11/27.518/41.9
 >1 gestation before3/7.54/9.3
Exercise habits before gestation>0.05
 Sedentary8/2014/32.6
 Some active9/22.512/27.9
 Active17/42.513/30.2
 Very active6/154/9.3
  • Data are expressed as mean ± SD, unless otherwise indicated.

  • CG, control group; EG, exercise group.