Table 1

Submaximal exercise, maximal exercise and total haemoglobin mass

Placebo (n=6)LHTL(+) (n=5)LHTL(−) (n=5)
Submaximal O2 uptake
 VO2 at 150 W (l/min)2472±2882447±1702438±1602351±832409±1472366±186
 Isovolumic haemodilution2396±2122392±1672332±218
 VO2 at 200 W (l/min)3007±212†3015±148†3043±1582957±1773097±1063005±91
 Isovolumic haemodilution2998±3132937±1653022±138
Maximal O2 uptake and workload
 VO2max (ml/min)4948±446†5050±485†4924±5824958±6504557±7264521±676
 Isovolumic haemodilution4797±5044672±5834536±722
 VO2max (ml/min/kg)70.8±5.372.3±6.073.5±2.974.3±4.865.1±4.866.5±5.5
 Isovolumic haemodilution68.6±5.2**70.0±4.0**66.6±4.6
 Maximal workload (W)411±23†422±28†412±50432±49*398±72394±62
 Isovolumic haemodilution412±29406±48**386±61
Total haemoglobin mass
 Hbmass (g)984±98†971±80†928±92970±93*933±219908±225
 Hbmass (g/kg)14.06±0.7613.88±0.6013.87±0.9714.58±0.95*13.14±1.0013.12±1.15
  • Values are means±SD. Within the live high–train low (LHTL) group of 10 athletes, LHTL(+) and LHTL(−), respectively, refer to the subgroups of ‘responders’ and ‘non-responders’, that is, the athletes who did (or did not) increase their total haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) following 4 weeks of LHTL (W4). Isovolumic haemodilution was performed at W4, after the first incremental test had been completed. LHTL(+) subjects were isovolumically haemodiluted by means of phlebotomy and plasma volume expander (PVX) infusion, whereas LHTL(−) and placebo subjects received PVX infusion only. Hbmass, total haemoglobin mass (absolute and adjusted to body weight); VO2max, maximal O2 uptake (absolute and adjusted to body weight); maximal workload (Wmax) was calculated as: Wmax=Wcompl+25×(t/60), where Wcompl is the last workload completed, t is seconds that the final, not completed workload was sustained and 25 (W) is the increment in workload. For VO2 at 200 W, n=4 for LHTL(−).

  • *p<0.05 vs baseline, **p<0.05 vs W4.

  • †These data are reproduced from our previous report26 for the sake of clarity.