Table 3

Application of the principles of exercise training and outcomes in exercise intervention studies in breast cancer survivors

Author, yearSpPrOVIVRevDRSignificant results
Aerobic exercise only
 Courneya et al, 2003+++NRNRNR↑ VO2 peak*, QoL*, peak PO, VO2 and PO at VE O2/VE CO2
 Daley et al, 2007+NRNR++NR↑ QoL*, PA, aerobic fitness (SSWT)
 Drouin et al, 2005+NR++NRNR↑ VO2peak*
 Irwin et al, 2009NR+?+NRNR↓ %BF, ↑LBM
 Kim et al, 2006+?++NRNR↓ Resting SBP, RHR, max SBP, ↑ VO2peak*
 Matthews et al, 2007?+NR?NRNR↑ PA
 Mock et al, 1994+?NRNRNRNR↑ 12 MWT
 Mock et al, 1997+???NRNR↑ 12 MWT, ↓ fatigue
 Mock et al, 2005NR+??NRNR↑ 12 MWT
 Nikander et al, 2007?+NRNRNRNR↓ Figure 8 run*, ↓ jump power
 Pinto et al, 2003++++NRNR↓ BP at baseline, 75 W and peak, HR at 75 W
 Pinto et al, 2005++NR+??↑ PA*, ↓ 1-mile test*
 Rogers et al, 2009????NRNR↑ PA, back, leg strength, left handgrip, ↓ W-H ratio
 Segal et al, 2001+??+NRNRNo differences (except chemotherapy-only group)
Resistance exercise only
 Schmitz et al, 2005++++NR+↓ %BF*, ↑ LBM*, ↓ IGF-II
 Schmitz et al, 2009++++NRNRNo ↑ lymphoedema*, ↑ strength
 Twiss et al, 2009+NRNR+NRNR↑ BMD*, strength, balance
'Mixed' aerobic and resistance interventions
 Battaglini et al, 2007+?+NRNRNR↑ LBM, ↓ BF, ↑ strength
 Campbell et al, 2005?NRNRNRNRNR↑ 12 MWT, ↑ PA
 Courneya et al, 2007++++NRNR↑ VO2peak, strength, BW, BF, LBM, no ↑ lymphoedema
 Demark-Wahnefried et al, 2008+NRNR+NRNR↓%BF without trunk
 Herrero et al, 2005++++NRNR↑ VO2peak, peak PO, leg press, LBM, ↓ sit-stand time, %BF
 Heim et al, 2007+NRNR+NRNR↓ Fatigue
 Ligibel et al, 2008+??+NRNR↓ Fasting insulin levels*, WC, HC
 Milne et al, 2008+?NR+NRNR↑ Aerobic fitness (submaximal cycle test) and strength
 Mutrie et al, 2007?NRNR+NR?↑ 12 MWT, shoulder mobility
 Nieman et al, 1995+??NRNRNR↓ 6 MWT
 Schwartz et al, 2007++NR?NRNR↑ BMD*, strength, 12 MWT
 Yuen and Sword, 2007?NRNR+NRNRAerobic – ↓ fatigue*, resistance – ↑ 6 MWT
  • *Primary outcome.

    6 MWT, 6-minute walk test; 12 MWT, 12-minute walk test; BF, body fat; BMD, bone mineral density; BP, blood pressure; BW, body weight; DR, diminishing returns; HC, hip circumference; HR, heart rate; IGF-II, insulin-like growth factor-2; IV, initial values; LBM, lean body mass; OV, overload; PA, physical activity; PO, power output; Pr, progression; QoL, quality of life; RHR, resting heart rate; RV, reversibility; SBP, systolic blood pressure; Sp, specificity; SSWT, single stage walk test; VE O2/VE CO2, ventilatory equivalent for oxygen/ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide; VO2, oxygen consumption; WC, waist circumference; W-H, waist to hip.