Table 1

Current published guidelines regarding competitive sports and the athlete with LQTS

Recommendations for athletic disqualification
2005 Bethesda Conference guidelines2005 ESC guidelines
Patients who have a history of LQTS-related symptoms, have a QTc >470 ms (males) or >480 ms (females) or who have an ICD should be limited to Class IA sportsAll patients who have LQTS, symptomatic or asymptomatic, are disqualified from all competitive sports
Asymptomatic genotype-positive/phenotype-negative patients are allowed to play, but are not at zero-risk*Recommended using QTc values of >440 ms (males) or >460 ms (females) as a trigger for further evaluation
  • *With the exception of LQT1 patients and swimming, as this is a known genotype-specific risk.

  • ESC, European Society of Cardiology; ICD, implantable cardioverter defibrillators; LQTS, long QT syndrome.