Table 4

Steroids identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and LC-MS/MS in two musk (pod) samples provided by the athletes' team physician and a reference musk grain specimen collected from a live musk deer in a German zoo

SteroidSample 1Sample 2Sample 3
Musk pod tissue and grainsMusk grainsMusk grains Zoo Leipzig
%µg/g%µg/g%µg/g
5β-Androstane-3α,17α-diol9.6135812.545289.81918
5α-Androstane-3α,17α-diol*0.912213511.3248
3α-Hydroxy-androst-4-en-17-one4.86791036309.11767
Androsterone*3.75125.118156.31228
Etiocholanolone30.2427229.210 58530.25896
5α-Androstane-3α,17β-diol*0.1170.1200.111
5β-Androstane-3α,17β-diol2.33065.819431.3247
5α-Androstane-3β,17α-diol*79874.1147861167
3β-Hydroxy-androst-4-en-17-one2.73832.48713.2626
DHEA*0.3490.1530.357
Epiandrosterone*1.92691.93211.3255
Epitestosterone*0.3480.1240.8166
Androst-4-ene-3,17-dione*0.5670.1260.244
Testosterone*<0.012<0.011<0.056
Cholesterol15.7222710.6385715.53022
5α-Cholestane4.563427204.8929
Other steroids16226314.5527110.11972
3α-Ureido-androst-4-en-17-one
Sum14 19435 49419 558
  • * Steroids prohibited according to the WADA Prohibited List 2011, S1.1b.38

  • Identified but not quantified.

  • DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone.