Table 2

Methodological quality

Criteria for quality score*
Author, year of publication12345678Total number
Aglietti, 198360?10011??3
Alberti et al, 2010241011111?6
Al-Rawi, 199761111?01?15
Anderson, 200362101111?05
Baker et al, 20022510?111??4
Barton et al, 201020101111117
Besier et al, 20082610?1111?5
Boling et al, 2009271011111?6
Callaghan, 200463111111??6
Caylor et al, 1993281110111?6
Cowan et al, 2001291011111?6
Cowan et al, 2002591011111?6
Crossley et al, 20033010?111??4
Dierks et al, 2008†311011111?6
Dorotka et al, 2002320110111?5
Draper, 2006131000110?3
Draper, 2009641011110?5
Duffey et al, 2000580111111?6
Eckhoff et al, 199433?0?1100?2
Emami et al, 2007341111101?6
Haim, 200665010111?04
Jan et al, 200935111111107
Jensen et al, 2008†66111111??6
Joensen et al, 200137001111116
Keser et al, 2008381111111?7
Laprade et al, 200339001111116
Livingston et al, 2003401001110?4
MacIntyre et al, 20064100111?1?4
Magalhaes et al, 201042111111107
McClinton et al, 2007430011111?5
Morrish, 199767101111??5
Muneta et al, 199444?111111?6
Näslund et al, 2007451001110?4
Ota et al, 200846101011116
Owings, 200268?00011??2
Patil et al, 2010481011111?6
Patil et al, 2010471011111?6
Piva et al, 200549101111106
Powers et al, 2000†501011111?6
Powers et al, 1996511011111?6
Salsich et al, 2007521011111?6
Souza, 200970101111106
Stefanyshyn et al, 200653?0?1110?3
Thomee et al, 1995541011111?6
Tuncyurek et al, 201055?011111?5
Werner et al, 1995561010111?5
Willson et al, 2008†571011111?6
  • *1: Open population study groups or recruited from primary and secondary care. Studies received also one point if they only included women, because the patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is more common in women than in man. 2: Number of cases ≥50. 3: Study groups comparable for age and gender. 4: Clear definition of inclusion and exclusion criteria was described. 5: Positive if a clear definition of outcome measure (variable that might be associated with PFPS) was described 6: Risk estimates were presented or raw data were given that allow the calculation of risk estimates, such as: OR, or relative risk. 7: Method used to control for confounding was described. 8: Blinding of outcome assessor on health status (PFPS versus control) subjects.

  • †Multiple studies included for methodological quality assessment.

  • 0, negative; ?, unclear.