Table 1

Summary of studies reporting symptoms at baseline

PaperSubject characteristicsScale usedResultsCommon symptoms reported
Covassin et al261209 Collegiate athletesPCS (ImPACT)Mean total symptom score (±SD): males: 7.3 (±11.5), females 7.9 (±12.4)Fatigue, headache, sleep disturbance, difficulty concentrating
Lovell et al501746 High school and university student athletesPCS (ImPACT)Mean total symptom score (±SD): males 4.6 (±7.7), females 7.9 (±11.5)NR
Shehata et al51260 University athletesSCATMean total symptom score: males 3.52, females 6.39Fatigue/low-energy, drowsiness, neck pain, difficulty concentrating, difficulty remembering
Piland et al271065 Collegiate athletesHISMean total symptom score (±SD): 4.72 (±6.07)
No significant differences between males and females
Fatigue, drowsiness, headache, trouble falling asleep, difficulty concentrating
Schneider et al524193 Youth hockey playersSCAT2Median total symptom score 0–8 (range 0–108)
No significant difference between males and females
Fatigue/low energy, headache
Jinguji et al53214 High school athletesSCAT2Average number of symptoms score=2.25
No significant differences between males and females
Fatigue, trouble falling asleep, difficulty concentrating, difficulty remembering
  • HIS, Head Injury Scale (9 items, 7-point Likert scale); NR, not reported; PCS, Postconcussion Symptom Scale; SCAT, Sport Concussion Assessment Tool.