Table 3

Active rehabilitation

PaperStudy type/settingSubject characteristicsInclusion criteriaOutcome measuresFindings/results
Gagnon et al63Prospective cohort (tertiary referral centre)N=16
Children and adolescents (aged 10–17 years)
Postconcussion symptoms >4 weeksSymptoms checklist, clinical examination, balance testing, coordination testingUsed a graded rehabilitation programme (beginning with submaximal aerobic training that is, 15 min on a treadmill or stationary bike, then introducing sports-specific training drills for 10 min)
Found a significant increase in exercise tolerance and reduction in symptom score (30.0±20.8 at presentation to 6.7±5.7 at discharge)
Mean duration of intervention 4.4±2.6 weeks
Leddy et al64Prospective cohort (University concussion clinic)N=12 (6 athletes, 6 non-athletes)Symptoms >6 weeks following concussion (5 sports related, 1 motor vehicle accident)Graded symptom checklist, graded exercise treadmill test (Balke protocol)Exercise at an intensity of 80% of the maximum heart rate achieved on the treadmill test before the exacerbation of symptoms10 of the 12 reported being symptom-free at rest
Athletes recovered faster than non-athletes
Rate of symptom improvement was directly related to exercise intensity achieved
Baker et al65Retrospective case seriesN=91 (63 had follow-up phone assessment 4–73 months postinjury)Symptoms >3 weeksSubjective symptom reporting, graded exercise treadmill test (Balke protocol)41/57 Who completed the exercise programme returned to full daily functioning