Table 3

Clinical study characteristics pertaining to concussion and protective equipment use (1998–September 2012)

StudyStudy designDuration (seasons)SportStudy populationExposure measuresOutcome measuresResults
Singh et al11XS3American football28 Males (mean age: 17.3±1.9 years at study onset)Customised mandibular orthotic (CMO) (preuse- and postuse)ConcussionMean self-reported incidence prior to CMO use: 2.1±1.4
Mean self-reported incidence after CMO use: 0.11±0.3
OR 38.33 (95% CI 8.2 to 178.6)
Hollis et al12XS1 or moreAustralian non-professional rugby3207 malesHeadgear useConcussionPlayers reporting always wearing headgear during games were at a reduced risk of sustaining a concussion (IRR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.40 to 0.82)
McIntosh et al13CRCT2Rugby Union FootballMales from U13, U15, U18 and U20 (ages 12-21 years) (n=3686)No Headgear use, Standard Headgear use, Modified Headgear useConcussion: Game Injury or Time-Loss (n=199)No significant difference in concussion rates between the three arms of the study (p>0.05)
  • CRCT, cluster-randomised controlled trial; IRR, incidence rate ratio; XS, cross-sectional.