Table 4

Comparison of linear and angular head acceleration maxima in concussive and non-injury head impacts in American football

StudyMean peak resultant linear head acceleration (g)Mean peak resultant angular head acceleration (rad/s2)Number of casesSportLevelMethodNo. participants (if cohort study)
No injuryConcussionNo injuryConcussionNo injuryConcussion
Brolinson et al (2006)1420.1103.3NM/NRNM/NR116013American footballCollegiateInstrumented helmets
Crisco et al (2011)1520.5Nil1400Nil2866360American footballCollegiateInstrumented helmets314 Players, 3 seasons
Duma et al (2005)163281NM/NRNM/NR33111American footballCollegiateInstrumented helmets
Funk et al (2012)17Range 10–250145NM/NRNM/NR371244American footballCollegiateInstrumented helmets98 Players in total over a total of 5 seasons
Guskiewicz et al (2007)18102.85312013American footballCollegiateInstrumented helmets
Mihalik et al (2007)1922.25NM/NRNM/NRNM/NR57024NM/NRAmerican footballCollegiateInstrumented helmets72 In total over a total of 2 seasons
Rowson et al (2009)20median=17.5Nilmedian=1017Nil17120American footballCollegiateInstrumented helmets10 Players, 1 season
Rowson et al (2012)211031230502230097757American footballCollegiateInstrumented helmets
Breedlove et al (2012)2227.5 (COI−/FOI−)28.5 (COI+/FOI+), 27.7 (COI−/FOI+)NM/NRNM/NR1463 (COI−/FOI−)1551 (COI+/FOI+), 1855 (COI−/FOI+)American footballHigh schoolInstrumented helmets21 season 1, 25 Season 2
Broglio et al (2009)2325Nil1468.6 to 1669.8Nil192240American footballHigh schoolInstrumented helmets35
Broglio et al (2010)2425.110516277229.55424713American footballHigh schoolInstrumented helmets78
Broglio et al (2011)25 and Broglio et al. (2011b)2624 to 2793.61500–17901753.910197420American footballHigh schoolInstrumented helmets95 over 4 seasons
Naunheim et al (2000)2729.2NM/NRNM/NRNM/NR1320American footballHigh schoolInstrumented helmets
35NM/NRNM/NRNM/NR1280HockeyHigh schoolInstrumented helmets
54.7NM/NRNM/NRNM/NR230SoccerHigh schoolInstrumented helmets
McIntosh et al (2009)28 and Frechede and McIntosh (2009)2959103.4554180201327Australian footballProfessionalRigid body simulations
Newman et al (2005)30/ Pellman et al (2003)3154.397.9415966643325American footballProfessionalATD reconstructions
  • +, presence of impairment; −, absence of impairment; COI, clinically observed impairment; FOI, functionally observed impairment; NM/NR, not measured or not reported.