Table 4

Summary of learning resources with an application to sport concussion

Learning resourceGeneral findings and sport concussion examplesReference
Internet▸ More prominent in education and is recognised as having the ability to change performance, knowledge and skill acquisition ▸ Valuable supplement to traditional approaches to education, with the potential to improve learning quality, access to training and education, and enhance the cost-effectiveness of education:  – Distance learning: learning at a distance;  – Blended learning: combined electronic and face-to-face learning; and  – Flexible learning: learner can choose either online or face-to-face learning ▸ Differences among learners, best practices, accessibility and experience with technology to facilitate on-line learning require further examination ▸ A variety of sport concussion-related websites exist, but there is variability in the standard of these websites. Sport medicine website providers should consider the delivery, content and readability of the information provided to the general public68,69,70 and 29
Television▸ Can act as a socialising agent and a learning tool ▸ Direct class teaching: substitutes for teachers on a temporary basis ▸ School broadcasting: compliments teaching and learning resources that are not available ▸ General educational programming: programming occurs over the community, national and international stations, providing general information education ▸ Linked to aggressive behaviour, violence, and childhood obesity ▸ Sport concussion educational programs have been produced by injury prevention organisations to address concussion issues at hand. An example is the ‘Smart Hockey’ program developed by ThinkFirst Canada, that discusses signs and symptoms and return to play71 and 72
Video Games▸ Linked to inactivity, asocial and violent behavior ▸ Can target specific, positive learning outcomes by: bridging gap between learned theory and practical application; and offering important attributes for positive learning (eg, motivation, mastering lessons through practice and repetition, goal setting and achievement, personalised learning and patience) ▸ Barriers include high development costs, negative attitudes of parents and educators and reluctance of educational settings to adopt electronic innovations73 and 74
Media▸ Draws public awareness to important issues and events ▸ Media portrayal of important issues, specifically concussion, may affect public awareness of proper concussion management75
Social media—facebook▸ Social Networking Sites (SNSs) have the potential to facilitate collaborations and share information through online communication ▸ Concussion Facebook sites, for example, are linked to advice seeking and social support ▸ The value of ‘iSupport’ is reflective of changing methods of communication in today's society, which could benefit from the moderation of healthcare professionals experienced in concussion to ensure proper information is communicated31 and 40
Social media—Twitter▸ Has the capacity to serve as a broadcast medium for a variety of topics including sport concussion information and education ▸ Evaluation of online information, specifically concussion, for integrity and accuracy is essential31