Table 4

Pathological radiological findings in symptomatic versus asymptomatic athletes in retrieved studies (non-athletic study participants not included)

StudiesMRIRadiographyUltrasound
Albers et al (2001)Verrall et al (2001)Robinson et al (2004)Brennan et al (2005)Slavotinek et al (2005)Lovell et al (2006)Cunningham et al (2007)Kunduracioglu et al (2007)Schilders et al (2007)Paajanen et al (2008)Zoga et al (2008)Schilders et al (2009)Harris et al (1974)Fricker et al (1991)Major et al (1997)Besjakov et al (2003)Kälebo et al (1992)
AthletesSASASASASASASASASASASASASASASA  SASA
Total number of athletes30052545261870391311810010022024016201270280122548011020036 0
Degenerative changes19NA512712–16*26?8?NANA502716NANANA60NANANANA918?NA11NA20NANANA
Pathology at adductor muscle insertion18NANANA14–32*2NANANANANANANANANANA17NA30?NA13NANANA?NANANANANA9NA
Bone marrow edema21NA422634–44*05?17211191014NANANA151363NANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Secondary cleft signNANANANANANA120NANANANA880NANANANANANA66NANANANANANANANANANANANANA
  • *Results of two radiologists evaluating images, ?= Insufficient information provided in study, NA= not assessed in study.

  • A, asymptomatic; S, symptomatic.